Chiropractic Care and ADD & ADHD

Chiropractic and the disabled child by Bobby Doscher, D.C. Editorial in Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol. 1 No. 4 May 1995.

According to figures released by the National Association of Teachers, over 35% of all school aged children have been diagnosed and labeled disabled (including physical, mental and emotional disorders and learning disabilities.) The fastest growing population in the United States is now children with disabilities. Millions of children are being drugged every day before going to school. These children need an opportunity to be treated naturally before resorting to chemical treatment with proven deleterious side-effects.

Upper Cervical Chiropractic Care For A Nine-Year-Old Male With Tourette Syndrome, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Asthma, Insomnia, and Headaches: A Case Report Elster EL J Vertebral Subluxation Research, July 12, 2003, p 1-11

Upper cervical care was used for a nine-year old male with Tourette Syndrome (TS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, asthma, insomnia, and headaches since age 6. Forceps were used during his delivery. His medications included Albuterol, Depakote, Wellbutrin, and Adderall.

Chiropractic care using an upper cervical technique corrected and stabilized the patient’s subluxation. After 6 weeks of care, all 6 conditions were no longer present and all medications were discontinued with the exception of a half-dose of WellbutrinT. At the conclusion of his case at 5 months, all symptoms remained absent. The response to care suggests a link between the patient’s traumatic birth, the upper cervical subluxation, and his neurological conditions.

Increasing retention rates among the chemically dependent in residential treatment: Auriculotherapy and subluxation-based chiropractic care. Holder JM, Duncan RC, Gissen M et al Molecular Psychiatry Vol. 6, Supplement 1 – February, 2001

This was a randomized study of auriculotherapy (ear acupuncture) versus a capsule placebo group among 66 residential patients. The study suggests that non-medication based treatment could have a positive effect on retention in a residential program. It was carried out to help reduce the lethargy, pain, dysphoria, sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression experienced by those who have attempted abrupt discontinuation of high-dose chemical used.

Based on these results, a randomized, placebo controlled, single blind study utilizing subluxation-based chiropractic care was implemented in the same residential setting.

Three groups were randomized. 98 subjects (14 female and 84 male) were enrolled after giving informed consent. The entire Active group completed the 28-day program, while only 24 (75%) of the Placebo group and 19 (56%) of the Usual Care group completed 28 days. The Active group showed a significant decrease in anxiety while the Placebo group showed no decrease in anxiety.

In summary, these modalities show significant promise for increasing retention of patients in the residential setting.

“After examining several diagnosed ADHD children, we find an upper cervical subluxation can lead to neurotransmitter involvement.”Larry Webster, D.C. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter. January 1996.

Tucker’s Story. Barnes T. (Kentuckiana Children’s Center) Int’l Chiropractic Assn. Review Sept/Oct 2000.

Four-year-old Tucker was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and manic-depression. He was not toilet trained, would eat dirt and would grind his teeth. He was taking three strong drugs with toxic side effects. Until 12-15 months of age he was a normal, healthy, vocal child. He then regressed to autism and lost his verbal skills.

Under chiropractic care his grinding has decreased dramatically, his hyperactivity has decreased and his eye contact has improved. His mother reports that Tucker has been smiling and showing more facial expression.

There is a good probability that Tucker appears to be suffering from vaccine damage. The majority of parents of autistic children report their child’s autism appeared shortly after their shots, particularly the MMR shot which is given from 12-15 months of age. However, the initial shots, which are given shortly after birth and at two months, are known to cause autism and other neurological/developmental disorders.

Noah’s Story Leisman N. (Kentuckiana Children’s Center) Int’l Chiropractic Assn. Review Sept/Oct 2000.

Noah was 10 years old with chronic congestion, possible allergies and “high energy and activity levels.” He had been on Ritalin for one year, when he was 7-8 years old, but it was discontinued as it affected his ability to think, learn and organize information.

Chiropractic analysis revealed vertebral subluxations in Noah’s spine. He was also found to have high levels of aluminum and lead in his system.

Noah began receiving chiropractic adjustments, nutritional supplementation and dietary recommendations. His chronic congestion resolved. His activity level began to decrease in intensity – he was able to stay focused longer. Noah’s progress continues.

ADHD – a mother’s testimony to chiropractic care. Letter sent to Dennis Davis, DC. Int’l Chiropractic Pediatric Assn. Newsletter Jan/Feb 2000. Mother’s name withheld by request.

My son Jarad was five when he was diagnosed with ADHD. He was a very sweet content child until his 5th birthday. He started acting out in an angry and uncontrollable manner. Although it was a hard decision, we chose to medicate him.

We started chiropractic care. After six visits he brought home a note from his teacher stating how well he was doing. He was being very cooperative, not talking, and hadn’t missed any homework assignments. At home was the biggest change. He was offering to help around the house, getting along with his younger siblings, and overall a very happy child. We don’t know how long this will last, but at this time in our life we are extremely happy with the outcome. And if this continues maybe someday – no medication!

ADHD: A Mother’s Testimonial. Int’l Chiropractic Pediatric Assn. Newsletter. July/August 1998

When Kevin was 3 he was diagnosed as having ADHD. After trying diet changes, allergy testing and behavior modification techniques, we reluctantly agreed to put Kevin on Ritalin. The medication did its job as far as slowing him down a bit, but he suffered many side effects. In 2 years he grew only 2 inches and did not gain any weight at all. He cried easily, had trouble sleeping, no appetite, and would “zone out” quite often.

Finally at age 6 we made the decision to stop giving him Ritalin. He grew 6 inches in less than 1 year and gained nearly 15 pounds. His sleeping and eating patterns were still erratic, and the schoolwork was horrible. His writing was illegible and math made no sense to him.

We brought him for chiropractic care, twice a week for 6 weeks. This past week when I went to his parent-teacher conference, the first thing the teacher asked me was had we put Kevin back on Ritalin. I said no, and she showed me samples of Kevin’s work and showed me the sudden improvement. For the first time his writing is in the lines, it is easy to read and much more age appropriate. Although he still tends to move around more than the average child does, he is able to concentrate, answer questions correctly and is reading better than most of his class!

ADHD – A multiple case study. Wendel P, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association. March/April 1998.

This is a 12-month study of 21 children: 17 male and 4 female, ages six to sixteen years. Eight of the children in the study are on Ritalin. After 5 months of care, thirteen of the initial 21 children are still participating in the study. Five of the remaining children are on Ritalin.

Case Reviews:

1. Female, age 10. Poor grades due to lack of focus on homework. After three months of care, she received “Most Improved Student” award for bringing grades from an F and a D to an A and B, respectively.

2. Male, age 13. History included traumatic birth (cord wrapped around neck). He did not crawl as a young child. After four weeks of care (including learning to cross crawl) he improved his grades from four F’s to a B, D and notable improvement in the remaining 2 classes.

3. Male, age 12. He was run over by a car while riding a skateboard at age 5. He exhibited severe discipline problems at school with school suspension several times and was failing all classes. There has been little behavior improvement but grades have improved to a B, three Cs and two Ds.

4. Male, age 15. Tested positive for allergies and had severe hand tremors. After one week of care his hand tremors diminished. After 5 months his grades improved to 3 As, 2Bs and 1C.
Child with chronic illness: respiratory infections, ADHD, and fatigue. Response to chiropractic care. Peet P, Chiropractic Pediatrics 1997 3(1): 12.

This is the case study of an eight-year-old boy with ADHD, constant throat congestion and raspy voice, ear infections or other upper respiratory infections, flat feet, fatigue, loss of physical stamina and low back pain.

He had experienced seizures when he had infections so he was placed on Phenobarbitol T. His mother reported that whenever he stayed up late he got sick. Symptoms of poor health started immediately after birth. Birth history was of a premature birth, forceps and vacuum extraction.

Chiropractic care was initiated with 3 visits a week for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks mother reported that her son’s posture “dramatically improved.” He could sit still for much longer periods of time, no longer talked with a constantly raspy voice, no longer suffered from back pain, had a better disposition and didn’t get sick when he stayed up late.

ADD, enuresis, toe walking. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter May/June 1997. From the records of Rejeana Crystal, D.C., Hendersonville, TN.

This is the case of a six-year-old boy with nightly nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting), attention deficit disorder and toe walking who was brought to the chiropractor.

He walked with his heels 4 inches above the ground. As treatment, the medical specialist recommended that both Achilles’ tendons be cut and both ankles be broken to achieve normal posture and gait.

Chiropractic findings included subluxation of atlas, occiput, sacrum and pelvis.after 4 weeks of care both heels dropped 2 inches and the bedwetting frequency decreased to 2-3 times per week. He continues care.

Chiropractic Care and Addiction

For over 100 years Doctors of Chiropractic have said that subluxation causes the body to lose its ability to adapt to the enviroment and that adjustments restore the bodies natural ability to adapt. However, our detracters have always held that we can’t prove this tenent. Today’s research clearly demonstrates how Chiropractic adjustments help people that have lost their ability to properly adapt to the environment. People who are addicted to the use of recreational drugs will go through an often painful process of withdrawal when they stop using. This withdrawal process is the primary reason an addict will fall out of addiction treatment program and begin using again. The withdrawal process is a clear indication of a body that is not properly adapting to a changing environment.

Chiropractic helps in treatment of addicts

From the March 29, 2001 issue of the Miami Herald comes a story of how chiropractic care is helping those in a Miami drug addiction program. The story starts by explaining that patients in a residential drug-addiction program who received chiropractic care designed to realign their vertebrae completed the treatment program at a remarkable 100 percent rate.

Ninety-eight patients at Miami’s Exodus drug-treatment program participated in the study that was featured in a Journal of Nature magazine called “Molecular Psychiatry”. The study also reported that the patients involved in the study at the treatment center who received chiropractic care made fewer visits to a nurses’ station and showed significant decreases in anxiety.

Dr. Jay Holder, medical director of the Exodus program and the chiropractor who conducted the study said, “Completing a 28- to 30-day program greatly enhances an addict’s chances of staying clean, but nationally only 72 percent of participants make it all the way through such programs.” Holder went on to say, “This correction of what chiropractors call subluxation results in a sense of well-being that allows patients to benefit more thoroughly from the group therapy and medical care of addiction treatment.” “Chiropractic does not treat addiction — it does not treat any disease,” Holder said. “We’re allowing those things that treat addiction to be embraced more thoroughly.”The participants were divided into three groups. One group got the regular regime of addiction care. The second group got “sham” (these patient’s think they have received an adjustment but they have not) adjustments, while the third group got actual chiropractic adjustments to correct subluxations. The group with the regular care and the sham chiropractic had a completion rate in the program of only 74% and 56%. The group that received the chiropractic care to correct subluxations showed a completion rate of 100%. The implications of completion of a drug treatment program are very important to preventing addicts from returning to drugs.

Chiropractic Care and Allergies

Long Term Remission and Alleviation of Symptoms in Allergy and Crohn’s Disease Patients Following Spinal Adjustment for Reduction of Vertebral Subluxations

Background: An association between visceral disease and immune dysfunction from sympathetic segmental disturbances secondary to vertebral subluxation has been put forward by chiropractic, osteopathic and medical practitioners. We report on the positive results of a controlled study using chiropractic adjustments to reduce subluxations in patients with Crohn’s disease and allergies. We also discuss possible mechanisms for the relationship between visceral and immune dysfunction and subluxation.

Methods: We divided 57 Crohn’s disease patients into two groups. A treatment group consisting of 17 patients and a control group consisting of 34 patients. 6 patients were excluded from the study because of their symptoms, progress and changes in blood test values and because vertebral subluxations were present only in the lumbar region. With all patients continuing their present medication, we subjected the treatment group of 17 patients to spinal adjustment in order to reduce the vertebral subluxations in the thoracic and lumbar regions and compared them with the 34 patients who did not receive spinal adjustments.

Results: Of the 17 patients who received spinal adjustments,
12 showed long-term and stable remission of their symptoms and 9 experienced an alleviation effect. We found that vertebral subluxation is a common and characteristic finding in patients with allergies and Crohn’s disease.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study the possibility may be considered that chronic nerve compression secondary to vertebral subluxation in the thoracic and lumbar regions had a significant effect on the immune function of these allergy and Crohn’s disease patients. It is further postulated that this nerve compression leads to a chronic functional disorder having a significant effect on digestion, absorption of nutrients and liquids, conveyance of food as well as various other functions of the digestive tract extending to excretion.

A New Approach to the Upper Cervical Adjusting Procedure: Part I. Kessinger RC, Bonita, DV. Chiropractic Research Journal 2000 SPR Vol. 7(1) Pgs. 14-32

Patient was a 27-year-old man with chronic sinusitis, headaches, nervousness, and insomnia. His examination revealed an atlas subluxation. Patient received upper cervical adjustments over a period of 3 months. The patient demonstrated correction of their upper cervical subluxation via pre and post Blair protracto x-ray views, spinal thermography, and pelvic balance leg length equality examinations. Patient reported a 50% reduction in frequency and intensity of all symptoms at 3 weeks and at 3 months reported he had been symptom free for 4 consecutive weeks.

The types and frequencies of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms reported after chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. Leboeuf-Yde C, Axen I, Ahlefeldt G, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Nov/Dec 1999:22(9) 559-64.

In this paper the authors asked, “How frequently [do] patients report nonmusculoskeletal symptomatic improvements and [what are] the types of such reactions that patients believe to be associated with chiropractic.”

Twenty consecutive patients from 87 Swedish chiropractors answered questionnaires on return visits. A total of 1,504 questionnaires were completed and returned. Twenty-three per cent of patients reported improvement in nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, including:

  • Easier to breathe (98 patients)
  • Improved digestive function (92)
  • Clearer/better/sharper vision (49)
  • Improved circulation (34)
  • Less ringing in the ears (10)
  • Acne/eczema better (8)
  • Dysmenorrhoea better (7)
  • Asthma/allergies better (6)
  • Sense of smell heightened (3)
  • Reduced blood pressure (2)
  • Numbness in tongue gone (1)
  • Hiccups gone (1)
  • Menses function returned (1)
  • Cough disappeared (1)
  • Double vision disappeared (1)
  • Tunnel vision disappeared (1)
  • Less nausea (1)

Orbital sinusitis. McCarthy, R ICPA Newsletter July/August 1997.

This is the case study of “a four year old boy with headaches, vomiting, nasal drip and decreased appetite was being treated with large doses of antibiotics. Past history revealed a fall on his head at age two from a height of 4 feet.

“Chiropractic analysis revealed a left cervical rotation with retrolisthesis and rotation of C2. He was seen 2 times per week for six months. The results were excellent. No more headaches, vomiting or nasal drip. In addition, his attitude and appetite dramatically improved.”

Chiropractic adjustment in the management of visceral conditions: a critical appraisal. Jamison JR, McEwen AP, Thomas SJ. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1992; 15:171-180.

This was a survey of chiropractors in Australia. More than 50% of the chiropractors stated that asthma responds to chiropractic adjustments; more than 25% felt that chiropractic adjustments could benefit patients with dysmenorrhea, indigestion, constipation, migraine and sinusitis.

Diagnosis and treatment of TMJ, head, neck and asthmatic symptoms in children. Gillespie BR, Barnes JF, J of Craniomandibular Practice. Oct. 1990, Vol 8, No. 4.

From the abstract: “Pathologic strain patterns in the soft tissues can be a primary cause of headaches, neck aches, throat infections, ear infections, sinus congestion, and asthma.”

A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. Van Breda, WM and JM. Journal of Chiropractic Research Summer 1989.

Children under chiropractic had less use of medications, including antibiotics, and suffered from less ear infections.

Characteristics of 217 children attending a chiropractic college teaching clinic. Nyiendo J. Olsen E. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1988; 11(2):78084.

The authors found that pediatric patients at Western States Chiropractic College public clinic commonly had complaints of ear-infection, sinus problems, allergy, bedwetting, respiratory problems, and gastro-intestinal problems. Complete or substantial improvement of their chief complaint had been noted in 61.6% of pediatric patients while 60.6% received “maximum” level of improvement. Only 56.7% of adult patients received “maximum” level of improvement.

Chiropractic Care and Asthma

A self-reported asthma-related impairment study was conducted on 81 children under chiropractic care.

The intent of this study was to quantify self-reported changes in impairment experienced by the pediatric asthmatic subjects, before and after a two month period under chiropractic care. Practitioners, representing a general range of six different approaches to vertebral subluxation correction, administered a specifically designed asthma impairment questionnaire at the appropriate intervals. Subjects were categorized into two groups; 1–10 years and 11–17 years.

Parents/guardians completed questionnaires for the younger group, while the older subjects self-reported their perceptions of impairment. Significantly lower impairment rating scores (improvement) were reported for 90.1% of subjects 60 days after chiropractic care when compared to the pre-chiropractic scores (p < 0.05) with an effect size of 0.96. As well, there were no significant differences across the age groups based on parent/guardian versus self rated scores. Girls reported higher (less improvement) before and after care compared to boys, although significant decreases in impairment ratings were reported for each gender. This suggested a greater clinical effect for boys which was supported by effect sizes ranging from 1.2 for boys compared to 0.75 for girls. Additionally, 25 of 81 subjects (30.9%) chose to voluntarily decrease their dosage of medication by an average of 66.5% while under chiropractic care. Moreover, information collected from patients revealed that among 24 patients reporting asthma “attacks” in the 30 day period prior to the study, the number of “attacks” decreased significantly by an average of 44.9% (p <.05). Based on the data obtained in this study, it was concluded that chiropractic care, for correction of vertebral subluxation, is a safe nonpharmacologic health care approach which may also be associated with significant decreases in asthma related impairment as well as a decreased incidence of asthmatic “attacks.” The findings suggest that chiropractic care should be further investigated relative to providing the most efficacious care management regimen for pediatric asthmatics.

Asthma Study Shows Chiropractic Benefits

From the November / December 2000 issue of Today’s Chiropractic, comes a study report on Asthma. The article notes that approximately 14 Americans die each day from asthma. Asthma is only one of three diseases that has shown an increasing death rate in recent years, up 58% since 1979. Presently estimates say that 17 million Americans suffer from the disease making it the most common and costly illness in the United States.

Today, costing over $13 billion annually. Presently, asthma causes more hospitalizations of children than any other childhood disease.

In the study, 47 patients were observed for a two year period. These patients had all been medically diagnosed with persistent asthma ranging from mild persistent in 11 cases, moderate persistent in 28 cases, to severe persistent in 8 cases. The care rendered consisted of specific chiropractic adjustments. The range of visits was from 14 to 44, with the average being 26 during the study period. Most patients in the study began care at a rate of 3 visits per week with this frequency being reduced after 4 to 8 initial weeks.

The patient results were very good with all 47 of the study patients showing a marked improvement ranging from 87 to 100 percent. Patient observed improvement was measured by both improvement in their symptoms as well as a decrease in their usage of acute asthma attack medication. Even more impressive was that all of the patients in the study reported maintaining their improvement after a two-year follow up.

Asthma Study on Benefits of Chiropractic

Asthma has become a large health concern for children in recent years. Over the past 20 years the incidence of asthma has doubled. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 1998, approximately 17,299,000 people in the United States, or 6.4% of the population, with cases among very young children up 160%. As reported in the June 16, 1999 issue of JAMA, the CDC also noted that between 1980 and 1994, the number of people self-reporting asthma grew 75%.

In a study conducted in 1996 by the Michigan Chiropractic Council (MCC), a panel of doctors performed an out-come assessment study to test the qualitative and quantitative effectiveness of chiropractic care on children with asthma. The high demand of parents seeking alternative care for pediatric asthma was shown by the overwhelming interest in the study. More than 500 parents called the MCC seeking to get their child involved in the chiropractic study.

The study, which took place during May and June of 1996, examined the chiropractic effectiveness in correcting the cause of asthma in patients from birth to age 17. The average age of the participant was 10 years. “After 30 days of chiropractic health care, patients averaged only one attack, whereas prior to the study they were experiencing more than four attacks,” said MCC Dr. Bob Graham, who directed the study. “Medications, which can be costly, were decreased by nearly 70 percent. Finally, patient satisfaction was rated 8.5 on a scale of 10.” More than 70 chiropractors from 62 cities in Michigan studied more than 80 children suffering from asthma.

Chiropractic Care and Autism

Chiropractic treatment has transformed the life of Max Willson and his parents. Christina Hopkinson reports

Quentin Willson is not an obvious advocate of alternative medicine. This is the man, after all, who came to prominence as a presenter on that bastion of blokes, Top Gear, and named his daughters Mercedes and Mini.

He admits that until two and a half years ago, the most alternative potion he had ever taken was a vitamin C tablet. But after his taking his son Max to see a chiropractor, he has become one of the treatment’s most evangelical exponents.

“I’m startled by the difference in Max before and after chiropractic,” he says. “He has gone from being labeled autistic and needing a classroom assistant to becoming an active and feisty seven-year-old in mainstream education.”

Max was born in April, 1998 after a very difficult labor. The umbilical cord was wrapped twice around his neck as well as being knotted and, due to his heart rate slowing, he had to be delivered quickly. To add to his wife’s distress, Quentin was six hours late for the delivery. “I was stuck in the floods on the M40 with no mobile reception. Michaela thought I was dead.”

Quentin and Michaela soon noticed that Max was not developing in the same way that his elder sister Mercedes had done, seven years previously. His eyes didn’t focus, while his hand movements were more unco-ordinated that those of his contemporaries. But it was when Max went into education at four that they began to seek help. “You never want to admit to yourself that you’ve got a backward child,” he says, “but it was clear that he was very, very behind. He couldn’t concentrate, was hyperactive and demanding.” Every childhood hurdle was twice as difficult as it had been for his sister – he wore nappies until he was four, was impossible to wean from the bottle and had never slept through the night. Family outings such as visiting a restaurant or friends’ houses were impossible.

The Wilson’s consulted both state and private health professionals to try to discover what was wrong with their son and were given diagnoses including dyspraxia and dyslexia. They even began to think that Max was autistic as he demonstrated symptoms that are often associated with the disorder: he walked on tiptoes, had an obsession with soft clothes and didn’t like labels next to his skin.

They were at the point of putting Max on Ritalin, the drug that is used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, when they had an “almost surreal” revelation. Quentin went to pick Max up from a birthday party where “he’d done his usual trick of sitting underneath the table for two hours”. There, he met a mother who had been observing Max for the previous hour. She said that she thought his skeleton was out of alignment and that he should see the chiropractor she had used, Deirdre Edwards, who practices in Stratford Upon Avon, near to the Willsons’ home.

Chiropractic is a form of complementary medicine that uses manual spine manipulation to correct alignment and improve the function of the nervous system. Deirdre Edwards practices a type called McTimoney, which takes a holistic approach in examining not only spinal and skeletal misalignments, but also the patient’s general wellbeing and quality of life. Though deeply sceptical, the Willsons felt that they had nothing to lose in crossing yet another treatment off their list.

Deirdre remembers Michaela Willson coming into her practice with an air of resignation and exhaustion, while Max wreaked havoc in the waiting room. Deirdre put him through a range of assessments and discovered that he was delayed in several areas.

A feather touching his skin caused him to say “ouch”, and he had no sense of smell. He couldn’t stand on one leg or follow simple instructions. His eyes twitched involuntarily, he made facial grimaces, had staccato speech and licked his lips continually. But she did manage to make eye contact, which suggested to her that he didn’t have severe autism.

Once she had checked that it was safe to give chiropractic help, Deirdre began to palpate his body. “There are seven bones in the neck,” she says, “and four of his were severely misaligned, affecting the natural balance throughout the rest of his body. Even a lay person would have been able to see that Max had muscular build-up on the left side of his neck, so that it looked like he’d been lifting weights.”

Deirdre believes that this misalignment was strangling his neural cord so that Max “was twisted in such a way that the cord could not transfer messages down the body. He was lucky to be walking.” This over-firing of his nervous system was, she says, interfering with his ability to learn, in turn compromising his immune system and lead to the continual colds and throat infections that he suffered.

The Willsons remember the treatment not hurting Max at all. “It was just flicking the bones around his neck and shoulders,” says Quentin, but that night, Max slept continuously until morning for the first time since his birth, nearly five years before.

Deirdre continued to see Max about once a week for the first month, and then every 10 to 14 days. His speech, eating and abilities quickly improved to the point where he now only visits her once a month.

The Willsons are thrilled.

“He sleeps like a log and has lost all that weirdness,” says Quentin. “He no longer has a classroom assistant and we’ve taken him out of his second genteel preparatory school with five children in the class and put him into a little village state school where he’s flourishing. He’s still a bit behind because he effectively missed out on a couple of years of education, but you can reason with him and he’s reading and writing and it’s amazing. I can only put this down to the chiropractic.”

They are so convinced by the benefits of chiropractic that Quentin is determined to spread the word. “This is the unimpeachable testimony of a man who did not believe in it. We have to raise awareness, because it worked so thoroughly for my son and changed his life and ours. If I can help just one child that’s going through what we went through, then that’s my reward.”

Case Report: autism, otitis media. Khorshid K. ICA Review Fall 2001

This is the case of Victoria, a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with autism, who also suffered from serous otitis media and hearing difficulty. The girl had speech and communication deficits and was considered to be at 9-12 month level of development. An ENT specialist suggested tubes in the ears.

She was placed under chiropractic care. Within 3 weeks of her first chiropractic adjustment, there was complete resolution of her otitis media. It was noticed that her tantrums increased after drinking milk therefore a gluten and casein free diet was implemented and this brought about “terrific” cognitive and emotional improvement, social skills, language and reasoning skills.

Lawrence’ Story: autism and cerebral palsy. In-line with Oklahaven Children’s Chiropractic Center (newsletter), Spring 2001, Oklahoma City, OK.

Six-year-old Lawrence was diagnosed with autism and cerebral palsy.

After beginning chiropractic care “Lawrence became more aware of the people around him and his surroundings. He took his first independent steps while receiving intensive treatments. He now walks 50 or 60 feet on his own, changing direction and standing still as necessary. He is also beginning to feed himself..His fine and gross motor skills have improved immensely and he has a range of different sounds he is making including experimenting with words.”

Chiropractic care and behavior in autistic children. Aguilar AL, Grostic JD, Pfleger B. Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol. 5 No. 1, 2000

This is one of the more ambitious projects regarding chiropractic and autism. Twenty-six randomly selected autistic children received nine months of upper cervical specific care. During this period they had four examinations during which their behavior and neurological response was monitored. Autism rating scales used were Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Modified Autism Behavior Checklist. (Orthospinology upper cervical chiropractic technique which is hypothesized to remove interference from the spinal cord and brainstem was employed as the chiropractic technique.)

The changes in children under chiropractic care included:

Children going off all medication (i.e.Ritalin, Dexadrine)
Improved bladder control
Improved digestion
Starting to speak/ speech improved
Decreased ear infections
Chronic colds stopped or decreased
Improved sleep
Improved eye/vision
Improved behavior
Five children enrolled for the first time in full time inclusion classroom settings.

Chiropractic Care and Back Pain

Chronic spinal pain – a randomized clinical trial comparing medication, acupuncture and spinal manipulation. Giles LGF, Muller R. Spine 2003;28:1490-1503.

Three groups of patients with back pain were given a nine week course of care using medicine, acupuncture or chiropractic care. The results showed a significantly higher number of satisfied chiropractic patients.

The 40 medical patients were given two anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS) and the pain killer Celebrex T, Viox T or paracetamol. 18 dropped out early because the drugs either didn’t help or caused side effects. Of the 22 who completed the study only two found relief.

Out of 32 patients who tried acupuncture 10 dropped out early because they weren’t being helped. Of the rest 3 reported pain relief.

Out of 33 chiropractic patients eight dropped out because they weren’t being helped. Of the rest nine reported pain relief.

Is low back pain part of a general health pattern or is it a separate and distinctive entity?A critical literature review of co-morbidity with low back pain.

Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Manniche CJ Manipulative Physiol Ther May 2003 . Vol 26 . No. 4

This review paper (literature search) goal is to see if there is co-morbidity or other health problems in people with persistent lower back pain. Twenty-three papers were reviewed. All “showed positive associations to all disorders investigated (headache/migraine, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease, general health, and others) with the exception of diabetes.”

The conclusion states: “The literature leaves no doubt that diseases cluster in some individuals and that low back pain is part of this pattern. However, the nature of the relationship between low back pain and other disorders is still unclear.” Unfortunately the authors did not investigate whether the most important findings chiropractors could locate, the vertebral subluxation complex, was a factor. The presence of VSC may clarify the relationship between lower back pain and visceral etc. disorders.

The course of low back pain in a general population. Results from a 5-year prospective study Hestbaek L, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. May 2003; Vol. 26, No. 4.

In this study, more than one third of people who experienced LBP in the previous year did so for more than 30 days. Forty percent of those still had LBP 1 and 5 years later, and 9% were pain free in year 5. LBP rarely seems to be self-limiting but merely presents with periodic attacks and temporary remissions.

Chronic low back pain: a study of the effects of manipulation under anesthesia. Nicholas F. Palmieri, NF Smoyak S Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics October 2002 . Volume 25 . Number 8

The objective of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of using self-reported questionnaires to study manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) for patients with chronic low back pain. Self-reported outcome assessment instruments were used to evaluate changes in patients receiving MUA versus those not receiving MUA.

A total of 87 subjects from two ambulatory surgical centers and 2 chiropractic clinics participated in this study. The intervention group consisted of 38 patients and the nonintervention (control) group consisted of 49 patients.

Patients in the intervention group received MUA. Patients in the nonintervention group received traditional chiropractic treatment.

In this sample of patients with chronic low back pain, self-reported outcomes improved after the procedure and at follow-up evaluation. There was more improvement reported in the intervention group than the nonintervention group. This study supports the need for large-scale studies on MUA. It also revealed that self-reported outcome assessments are easily administered and a dependable method to study MUA.

Upper cervical management of a patient with neuromusculoskeletal and visceral complaints. McCoy M. Today’s Chiropractic May/June 2001. P. 46-47.

This is the case of a 65-year-old man who began to have symptoms of lower extremity pain and parasthesias, ambulatory problems, urinary difficulties (having to urinate every half hour) and visual problems after back surgery which fused his thoracolumbar segments. Patient also had gout which affected his right big toe and fingers, ankles, elbows and fingers. He was on Indocin for the gout. He was also on medication for high blood pressure and wore glasses for reading.

Twice as a child he suffered from head trauma. One time he fell over a railing and landed on top of his head.

The patient reported that during the evening of his first adjustment he experienced shock-like sensations bilaterally into his arms and legs. He also reported chills, a fever, and coldness in his hands, sweats, and an increase in frequency of urination, gluteal muscle soreness and loss of appetite. By the next morning the symptoms resolved.

Patient had twenty chiropractic visits over a 5 month period. By the time of the seventh visit he did not need an adjustment. The numbness and tingling along the right side of his body were gone and he was walking better. His legs felt stronger and he was not using his cane much. Sitting and standing were less troublesome.

He reports a decrease in frequency of urination to only a few times a day and that he doesn’t need his glasses for reading anymore.

Back pain reporting pattern in a Danish population-based sample of children and adolescents. Wedderkopp N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Andersen LB, et al. Spine 2001; 26(17): 1879-83

In this study researchers surveyed 481 eight to ten year olds and 325 adolescents (14-16 years old). Within a one month period, 39% stated they had experienced back pain – the thoracic (mid-back) area being the most common area of complaint in childhood; thoracic and lumbar (low back) pain being more common among adolescents. Neck pain was rare in those surveyed.

Complementary care: when is it appropriate? Micozzi MS 1998. Annals of Internal Medicine:128:65-66.

“The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) recently made history when it concluded that spinal manipulative therapy is the most effective and cost-effective treatment for acute low back pain.One might concluded that for acute low-back pain not caused by fracture, tumor, infection, or the cauda equina syndrome, spinal manipulation is the treatment of choice.”

See also: Bigos S., Bowyer O., Braen G., et al. Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14. AHCPR Publication No. 95-0642. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December, 1994.

Chiropractic management of a patient with subluxations, low back pain and epileptic seizures. Alcantara, Herschong, Plaugher and Alcantara. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, Volume 21, Number 6, pp. 410-418, April 1998.

This is a case study of a 21-year-old female with a history since childhood of grand mal and petit mal seizures occurring every three hours.

Examination revealed subluxation/dysfunction at L5-S1, C6-C7 and C3-C4, retrolisthesis at L5, hypolordosis of the cervical spine and hyperextension at C6-C7.

Gonstead care was administered and at a 1.5 year follow-up, the patient reported her low back complaints had resolved and her seizures had decreased (period between seizures as great as 2 months).

The authors conclude, “Data suggests that epilepsies are common, with an incidence between 40 and 200 per 100,000 with an overall prevalence between 0.5-1.0% of the general population. When one considers the potential side effects of antiepileptic drugs, research into the effects of chiropractic care for patients with epilepsy should be initiated.”

Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low-back pain. Van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM Spine 1997;22:2128-2156.

This study reported that there is “strong evidence of the effectiveness of manipulation for patients with chronic low-back pain.”

Chiropractic/Dental co-treatment of lumbosacral pain with temporomandibular (TMJ) joint involvement. Chinappi AS and Getzoff H J Manipulative Physiol Ther, Vol. 19 No. 9 Nov/Dec 1996.

This is the case of a 33-year old woman with centralized lumbosacral pain.

After 30 months of chiropractic care she was still experiencing some lower back pain and limited improvement and agreed to see an orthodontist who diagnosed a “Class 11 malocclusion with significant loss of vertical dimension, characteristic of bilateral posterior bite collapse”.

From the abstract:

The co-treatment approach, which integrated dental orthopedic and craniochiropractic care, ameliorated the pain and improved head, jaw, neck and back function.

Conclusion: The position of the jaw, head and vertebral column, including the lumbar region, are intricately linked. Orthodontic treatment improved the position of the mandible, which in turn enabled the body to respond to chiropractic care.

Evaluation of the Toftness system of chiropractic adjusting for subjects with chronic back pain, chronic tension headaches, or primary dysmenorrhea. Snyder, BJ, Sanders, GE Chiropractic Technique, 1996;8:3-9.

24 subjects with chronic back pain, 19 subjects with chronic tension headaches and 26 subjects with dysmenorrhea underwent a series of Toftness adjustments or sham interventions.

Toftness adjustments had significant clinical benefit, whereas those receiving sham interventions did not improve.

Manga Report, (Canada) 1993.Enhanced chiropractic coverage under OHIP (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) as a means for reducing health care costs, attaining better health outcomes and achieving equitable access to health services. Manga, P. Report to the Ontario Ministry of Health, 1998.

“On the evidence, particularly the most scientifically valid clinical studies, spinal manipulation applied by chiropractors is shown to be more effective than alternative treatments for low back pain.”

Chiropractic Care and Bedwetting

Case management of nocturnal enuresis Hough DW, Today’s Chiropractic July/August 2001 p. 59/66.

The author reports that usually two to three visits are required to solve bedwetting problems. He presents two case studies that are the extremes in number of adjustments.

1. Esta, a 4-year-old female, wet nearly every night. Subluxations were found at her sacrum, ileum, T3, T5 and cervical area. The next day her mother reported she was dry. She had no more problems with bedwetting from then on.

2. Aaron, a 5 year old male had pain in his feet in addition to nightly bedwetting. Subluxations were found in his sacrum, ileum, thoracic and cervical spine. In addition restrictions were found in the calcaneus vulgus of both feet.

Adjustments were performed. He no longer complained of foot pain and his mother reported that he was dry about half the nights since his previous visits. “Aaron required 10 more adjustments before his bedwetting totally resolved.”

Asthma and Enuresis. Zell, P. International Chiropractic Pediatric Assn. Newsletter May/June 1998

Case report #1374.

This is the case of a 7-year-old girl suffering from asthma and enuresis (bedwetting) brought to the chiropractor by her mother.

Since she was three years old she suffered from asthma along with many attacks of colds and flu. The asthma was so severe that she was hospitalized for 3 days at one time and had gone to the emergency room another time. The mother reports that her daughter would cough up a ball of phlegm following each attack.

Chiropractic examination revealed vertebral subluxation at C2, T5, T12 ileum and sacrum. She improved following her first adjustment. After the 5th adjustment the asthma and bedwetting ceased and did not return.

ADD, Enuresis, Toe Walking. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter May/June 1997. From the records of Rejeana Crystal, D.C., Hendersonville, TN.

This is the case of a six-year-old boy suffering from nightly nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting), attention deficit disorder and toe walking. He walked with his heels 4 inches above the ground. The medical specialist recommended both Achilles’ tendons cut and both ankles broken to achieve normal posture and gait.

Chiropractic findings included subluxation of atlas, occiput, sacrum and pelvis.after 4 weeks of care both heels dropped 2 inches and the bedwetting frequency decreased to 2-3 times per week. His medical doctor was shocked at his recovery under chiropractic care.

Chiropractic management of primary nocturnal enuresis. Reed WR, Beavers S, Reddy SK, Kern G.J Manipulative Physiol Ther Vol. 17, No. 9 Nov/Dec 1994.

This was a controlled clinical trial of 46 enuretic (bedwetting) children that were placed under chiropractic care. The children were under care for a 10 week period preceded by and followed by a 2 week no treatment period.

The 46 children were divided into two groups: 31 received chiropractic care and 15 were in the control group.

At the end of the study, 25% of the treatment-group children had 50% or more reduction in the wet night frequency from baseline to post-treatment while none among the control group had such reduction.

Bed-wetting; two case studies. Marko, RB Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 1 No 1 April 1994.

Case #0991.

This is the case of a five-year-old female who had been wetting her bed for six months and was prescribed antibiotics for what MDs diagnosed as a bladder infection.

After the second chiropractic adjustment, she stopped wetting her bed for three weeks. She had a bad fall and began to wet her bed again. Following her next adjustment, she has remained dry.

Case #0419.

This is the case of a nine-year-old male who wet his bed almost every day of his life.

During his first six months of chiropractic care he would remain dry for one or two days after his adjustments. A change in adjustments to the sacrum resulted in greater improvement. He is now dry for one-half to two-thirds of the nights between the adjustments.

Functional nocturnal enuresis. Blomerth PR. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1994:17:335-338.

This is the case of an eight-year-old male bed-wetter. He was adjusted once in the lumbar spine. At a one month follow-up there was complete resolution of enuresis.

The child had two wet nights following a sports accident but was adjusted and the bed-wetting ceased. He had minor accidents one year and two years later, with enuresis starting again. In both instances the bedwetting ceased after adjustments.

The author remarks: “This happened in a manner that could not be attributed to time or placebo effect,” since the patient didn’t know that adjustments could affect that condition.”

Nocturnal enuresis: treatment implication for the chiropractor. Kreitz, BG, Aker PD. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994:17(7): 465-473.

A review of the literature of nocturnal enuresis is presented. The author states: “Spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to possess an efficacy comparable to the natural history.”

Epileptic seizures, nocturnal enuresis, ADD. Langley C. Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 1 No. 1, April, 1994.

This is the case of an eight-year-old female with a history of epilepsy, heart murmur, hypoglycemia, nocturnal enuresis and attention deficit disorder.

The doctors told her mother that her daughter would never ride a bike or do things like normal children. She was wetting the bed every night, experiencing 10-12 seizures/day, with frequent mood swings, stomach pains and diarrhea. She was in special education classes for the learning disabled.

The child had been to five pediatricians, three neurologists and six psychiatrists. She had ten hospitalizations and had been on Depakote T, Depakene, T Tofranil T and Tegretol T.

Her birth was difficult (cesarean section under general anesthesia). Her mother was told the baby was allergic to breast milk and formulas and was on prescription feeding.

Chiropractic adjustments were to C1 and C2 three times/week. After two weeks of care, the bed-wetting began to resolve and was completely resolved after six months. During that period, her attention deficit disorder resolved and she left special education classes to enter regular fifth grade classes.

Her seizures diminished to 8-10 per week after one year of care. She was released from psychiatric care as “self managing.”

Her resistance to disease increased and she can now ride a bike, roller skate and ice skate like a normal child. She is expected to be off all medication within a month of this writing

Chiropractic Care and Blood Pressure

Latest findings show Chiropractic can help reduce blood pressure.

More than 3.6 million Australians over the age of 25 have high blood pressure or are on medication for the condition, but findings recently released by the Chiropractors’ association of Australia indicate there is a non-drug alternative that can lower abnormal blood pressure in healthy bodies by 7.8% – 13%.

The latest findings published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol, 24,No.2,by Dr Gary Knutson DC., show chiropractic adjustments to the upper neck can lower systolic blood pressure almost immediately.

According to Dr Laurie Tassell, National Spokesperson for the Chiropractors’ Association of Australia, a chiropractic pilot study involving 80 people found there is a relationship between the upper neck vertebrae and the body’s natural blood pressure control reflexes.

“With gentle chiropractic adjustment to the upper neck, blood pressure can be lowered, with good results measured for older patients in particular,” he said.

Traditionally the causes of blood pressure, according to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, have been linked to excess weight, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, dietary salt intake and nutrition patterns with low intake of fruit and vegetables and a high intake of saturated fat.

Data from the 1999-2000 study of general practice activity in Australia shows that high blood pressure is the most common problem managed by general practitioners, accounting for 6% of all problems managed.

“This is where the results of our finding are significant, because chiropractic spinal adjustments may be able to reduce a patient’s blood pressure and in conjunction with visits to their local GP, the level of prescribed drugs may be significantly reduced,” said Dr Tassell.

A report by the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study found that in 1999-2000, more than 3.6million Australians over the age of 25 had high blood pressure, which equates to 31% of men and 26% of women.

“These chiropractic research findings and the affect of high blood pressure on the Australian population provide a good foundation to recommend further studies involving larger groups for more detailed testing,” said Dr Tassell.

Further to this the Chiropractors’ Association of Australia hope to conduct further studies to identify direct connections between joint problems and muscle tension, and its effects on the nerve reflexes.

“The benefit of chiropractic care is that it is a drugless, painless, and surgically free approach to good health, with the goal of helping allow the body to function and repair itself,” said Dr Tassell.

Chiropractic management of a hypertensive patient: a case study. Plaugher G. Bachman TR.

A case study of a 38 year old male presented with a complaint of hypertension of 14 years duration and side effects of medication (minipress and Corgard) which included bloating sensations, depression ,fatigue and impotency. Chiropractic analysis revealed vertebral subluxation complex at levels Cervical 6-7,Thoracic 3-4,and 7-8 motion units (vertabrae).

After three visits the patient’s M.D. stopped the Minipress and reduced the Corgard. After six adjustments corgard was reduced again. All medications were stopped after seven adjustments. Medication side effects had abated as well.

After 18 months patients blood pressure remained at normal levels.

High blood pressure is something many people suffer from and yet, in most cases the cause is unknown.

Case studies showing changes in blood pressure after Chiropractic care are becoming more and more abundant. Although not a treatment for any disease Chiropractic is designed to maximize life and boost the bodies recuperative powers. Chiropractic teaches us to remove all interferences with body function (subluxation) and to seek out more natural, conservative methods before submitting to more radical (drug and surgical) approaches. Exercise, rest and emotional care, along with a healthy spine and nervous system are all vital for optimal health and well – being. Explore them all.

“While results cannot be predicted for a particular hypertensive patient, a therapeutic trial of chiropractic co-management would seem to be warranted, especially when dysfunction is identified in relevant spinal areas. Proper lifestyle advice and medical care should be concurrent with a regime of adjusting. The authors advise close monitoring of blood pressure for all chiropractic patients on anti-hypertensive medication…the combined effects of the adjustment and the medication might drive a patient’s blood pressure below normal.” From Weber M. and Masarsky C, Eds. Neurological Fitness Vol.2 No.3 April 1993.

The types and frequencies of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms reported after chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. Leboeuf -Yde C, Axen I, Ahlefeldt G, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Nov/Dec 1999:22(9) 559-64.

“How frequently [do] patients report nonmusculoskeletal symptomatic improvements and [what are] the types of such reactions that patients believe to be associated with chiropractic.”

Twenty consecutive patients from 87 Swedish chiropractors answered questionnaires on return visits. A total of 1,504 questionnaires were completed and returned. Twenty-three per cent of patients reported improvement in nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, including:

  • Easier to breathe (98 patients)
  • Improved digestive function (92)
  • Clearer/better/sharper vision (49)
  • Improved circulation (34)
  • Less ringing in the ears (10)
  • Acne/eczema better (8)
  • Dysmenorrhoea better (7)
  • Asthma/allergies better (6)
  • Sense of smell heightened (3)
  • Reduced blood pressure (2)
  • Numbness in tongue gone (1)
  • Hiccups gone (1)
  • Menses function returned (1)
  • Cough disappeared (1)
  • Double vision disappeared (1)
  • Tunnel vision disappeared (1)
  • Less nausea (1)

Chiropractic Care and Carpal Tunnel

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome can affect everyone

Today just about everyone can be affected, but particularly people involved in occupations or leisure activities that require repetitive use of the hands and wrists (i.e., office, skilled labor jobs, tennis, golf or even knitting). Medical doctors commonly prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs, which prove ineffective in most patients and cause adverse side effects in others.

The double crush syndrome is a compression neuropathy characterized by affecting two areas along the same nerve, one usually distant from the other. A growing number of researchers have suggested a correlation between some peripheral neuropathies like carpal tunnel syndrome and cervical nerve root compression another. The nerve is “crushed” or irritated in the spine, “priming” the more distal areas of the nerve for dysfunction when that part is stressed by the second “crush”).

Autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome Verghese J, Galanopoulou AS, Herskovitz S, Muscle Nerve 2000 Aug;23(8):1209-13

This is the study of 76 patients with CTS (in 139 limbs). Autonomic symptoms were reported in 76 limbs (47 patients). Of these, 59% consisted of swelling of the fingers, 39% dry palms, 33% Raynaud’s phenomenon, and 32% blanching of the hand. Sympathetic skin response (SSR) had a sensitivity/specificity ratio of 34/89% in CTS with autonomic symptoms. The presence of autonomic disturbances was significantly associated with female gender but not age, duration of disease, or clinical severity in a binary logistic regression model.

It appears that autonomic disturbances are common (55%) in CTS, occurring with increasing severity of electrophysiologic findings.

Conservative chiropractic care of cervicobrachialgia Glick DM, Chiropr Res J, 1989; 1(3):49-52

Cervicobrachialgia, also known as “brachial neuritis” or “brachial neuralgia” involves neck and arm pain that can be described as “sharp,” “stabbing,” or “aching,” with acute sudden onset. The pain is in the shoulder blade, the side of the neck and may continue through the upper arm.

This is the case of a 42 year-old woman diagnosed with the above condition who had suffered a fall skiing during the prior week when symptoms began. Upper cervical x-rays revealed the atlas to be displaced laterally to the right and rotated anterior on that side. The patient was adjusted upper cervically by hand.

Immediately following the first adjustment the patient reported noticeable relief in symptoms. 48 hours later she received a second adjustment. Three days later she was checked again and did not need an adjustment.

Comparative efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Davis PT, Hulbert JR, Kassak KM, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, June 1998, vol.21/no.5, pp317-26.

This study showed that chiropractic was as effective as medical treatment in reducing symptoms of CTS. Chiropractic care included spinal adjustments, and in addition, ultrasound over the carpal tunnel and the use of nighttime wrist supports.

Clinical commentary: pathogenesis of cumulative trauma disorders. MacKinnon S. Journal of Hand Surgery, Sept. 1994, 873-883.

In a study of 64 patients with repetitive stress disorders of whom 34 had wrist surgery, wrist pain or discomfort was not the only symptom the patients complained of.

Most patients had multiple problems, especially muscle imbalance. The high failure rate of surgery causes the author to rethink the cause of CTS: “Unnatural postures for extended periods creating pressure on the nerves in the neck, leading to neurological and other symptoms…even when extremity surgery improves the peripheral symptoms such as numbness in the hands, other associated problems like neck stiffness and shoulder pain persist.”

Chiropractic Care and Childhood Ailments

Research Ties Vertebral Subluxation to Common Childhood Ailments

Below you will find a sample of the research linking vertebral subluxations and nerve interference with specific childhood ailments.

Ear Infection

Investigators evaluated 46 children under the age of five with ear infections. A full 93% recovered within 10 days of chiropractic care ( J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996; 19:169-77). Another study looked at 5 children with recurrent middle ear infections who had been receiving medical treatment for at least six months, but had failed to recover. All the children improved with no more than five visits to their chiropractor (J Clin Chir Ped 1996; 1:66).

Colic

In one survey of 132 parents of infants with colic, 91% reported that their babies improved after an average of two to three adjustments (Eur J Chiropr 1985; 33:264-5). Another study of 316 babies with colic found that 94% benefited from chiropractic care (J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989; 12:281-8).

Asthma

One experiment enrolled 81 children with asthma. After two months of chiropractic care, 90% of subjects showed a significantly improved quality of life (J Vertebral sublux Res 1997; 1:41-8). And 76.5% of asthma patients in another survey reported benefiting from chiropractic (Bull Eur Chir Union 1978; 26:17-34).

ADHD

One study conducted at Mississippi State University compared chiropractic care to placebo treatment in seven youngsters with attention problems. Five of the patients showed improved behavioural scores. The report concluded that, “chiropractic manipulation (adjustment) has the potential to become an important non-drug intervention for children with hyperactivity” (J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989; 12:353).

The relationship between intensity of chiropractic care and the incidence of childhood diseases. Rose-Aymon S, Aymon M. Prochaska-Moss G, Moss R, Rebne R, Nielsen K. Journal of Chiropractic Research, 1989 (Spring): 70-77.

This was a pilot study to determine if a relationship existed between the incidence of childhood diseases and intensity of chiropractic care. The results showed that intensive chiropractic care (i.e. more than seven visits per year and more than one year of care) increased resistance to the common childhood diseases.

A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. Van Breda, WM and Van Breda JM Journal of Chiropractic Research Summer 1989.

One hundred chiropractors and one hundred pediatricians were surveyed and asked about the health of their own children.

Lower antibiotic use and lower incidence of disease, especially ear infections, was reported in the “chiropractic” children. If the “chiropractic” children did get measles, rubella or mumps it was reported that the diseases were quite mild compared to those exhibited by their classmates.

Absence of T-cells, immune dysfunction, has colds all the time. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter. November 1996

A male child, age 5 diagnosed with malformation of the cervical spine and severe scoliosis, was also was not vocalizing well, had an absence of T-cells, exhibited immune dysfunction and had colds all the time. Surgery had been considered to correct skull positioning.

Utilizing the infant toggle headpiece, the Atlas was adjusted ASL. The child was medically reevaluated and he was now normal. Six months later his vocabulary was normal, his head position was normal and there were no colds evident during these months. Scoliosis was greatly reduced.

Chiropractic Care and Colic

Infantile Colic Improved with Chiropractic

The National Health Service in Ballerup (Copenhagen, Denmark) conducted a study involving 50 infants with diagnoses infantile colic. Half of the group was given the drug dimethicon while the other half was given chiropractic care. In this study nine of the 25 taking the drug dropped out of the study because the infants were getting worse. These infants were then not counted in the final results which would have shown a worse result for the drug than published.

Even with the removal from the tabulations of the infants who got worst using the drug, the results showed a significant improvement in the group that were under chiropractic care. By days 4 to 7 of the study, the infants remaining in the drug group had reduced their hours of crying by only one hour while the entire chiropractic group had reduced crying hours by an average of 2.4 hours. The results after 8 to 10 day into the study continued to show the drug therapy infants at a one hour improvement while the chiropractic group further improved to 2.7 hours less of crying. The researchers noted that the removal from the study of the infants that got worse from the drug made the results from the drug look better than they actually were.

Chiropractic Care Conquers Colic

The above title appeared in the December 1998 issue of Country Living’s Healthy Living, beginning on page 53. The article details the concerns of a mom whose new baby was suffering from colic. The article featured the mother’s account of the situation starting from her initial phone call to the pediatrician. “When I phoned my doctor to ask if he thought it was safe (to see a chiropractor), he was ambivalent: Chiropractic would neither harm nor help. He told me that if it was colic, it would run its course in three months.”

After this advice, her next stop was to take the child to the chiropractor. She recalled that the first visit was an extended one with a lot of time spent caring for the child and the parents. Following the first adjustment, the child seemed to be more reactive and colicky, but she followed the instructions given her by the chiropractor and the baby calmed right down. “We had five more sessions with the chiropractor. Each lasted 20 minutes and Lucy (the infant!) really seemed to enjoy them. It completely changed what was fast becoming a nightmare. I’d like to recommend to everyone with a colicky infant see a chiropractor. It certainly worked for us.”

Infantile Colic

Probably one of the most frustrating situations new parents find themselves in is having to deal with a child that is suffering from colic. For these parents a recent study conducted in South Africa offers some good news. In a study by Mercer and Cook, thirty infants who had been diagnosed medically with colic were randomly divided into two groups. One group received chiropractic care while the other group did not. All infants in this study were newborn to 8 weeks old and had been diagnosed with colic by a pediatrician. For the purposes of this study, the infants in the chiropractic group received care for a two-week period with a maximum of six adjustments. The results of the study were very impressive. In the group that received chiropractic care, there was complete resolution of symptoms in 93% of the infants within the two-week period. Even more impressive was that in a follow up survey performed one month later, none of the infants had experienced a reoccurrence of problems from colic. The chiropractic care rendered in this study was spinal adjusting.

Differential compliance instrument in the treatment of infantile colic: A report of two cases Leach RA, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics January 2002, Volume 25, Number 1

Case 1: A 6-week-old female infant crying almost continuously since birth, which the mother described as often “violent screaming,” had steadily gotten worse. She slept only 3 hours a night and had 15 minutes of rest 3 or 4 times per day from brief periods of feeding or riding in a car.

Her pediatrician diagnosed the infant with infantile colic, and the mother brought the infant for chiropractic evaluation after a nurse suggested that adjustments might help.

[Diagnosis of] T8 segmental dysfunction was made on the basis of the mother’s statements and observation of the child’s behaviors since entering the clinic. After a single adjustment the child rested for 11 hours during the following 24-hour period and slept for 9 uninterrupted hours during the night. The infant awakened smiling and laughing.

Case 2: A 9-week-old male infant had infantile colic. The mother had been taking Lorazepam T, Paxil T, Zyprexa T, and Wellbutrin T for the first 4 months of her pregnancy until she discovered she was pregnant. At that time she discontinued all medications except Zyprexa, which she continued throughout her pregnancy.

Child was diagnosed with acid reflux as a result of crying day and night; unrelieved by normal parenting behaviors, and Zantac T was prescribed. On entrance to the office 3 weeks later, the parents stated the crying had progressed to about 14 hours per day in spite of these interventions.

After 4 consecutive daily adjustments crying was reduced to 7 hours, uninterrupted sleep increased to 5 hours (from 3 hours before care), and total sleep in a 24-hour period increased to 13 hours (from 5 hours before care).

After 9 adjustments over 2 weeks, the infant was crying an average of only 2 hours per day, was sleeping 5 hours per night and averaging 14 hours of total sleep per day. The baby no longer screamed but smiled and remained awake without crying for long periods and responded appropriately to normal parenting efforts. On subsequent consultation with the pediatrician, all medications were discontinued except Benadryl T as needed. However, the mother occasionally gave the infant Mylicon T on occasion. Colicky behaviors, such as inconsolable crying and clenching of fists, did not return.

Chiropractic Care and Digestive Issues

Researchers Discover Possible Link Between Crohn’s Disease and Spinal Problems

According to a recent study, researchers in Japan say there is a possible link between Crohn’s disease and interference to the nervous system from spinal misalignments.

The research was published in the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research and grew out of a previous study involving more than 3,000 patients with allergic diseases and over 1,000 non-allergic patients. It focused on the relationship between immune function, spinal displacements called vertebral subluxations, and how reducing those displacements resulted in improvement, and in some cases complete remission, of symptoms of Crohn’s disease.

Crohn’s disease causes inflammation in the small intestine but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. The inflammation causes pain and makes the intestines empty frequently, resulting in diarrhea.

There are many theories about what causes Crohn’s disease but none has been proven. The most popular theory is that the body’s immune system reacts to a virus or a bacterium by causing ongoing inflammation in the intestine.

Treatment for Crohn’s disease includes corticosteroids to control inflammation but while these drugs are considered the most effective for active Crohn’s disease, they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection. Immune suppressing drugs are also used to treat Crohn’s disease.

According to Dr. Yasuhiko Takeda, a chiropractor and lead author of the study: “This is why it is so important to develop other means of dealing with this terrible disease. If we can find treatments that enhance the function of the immune and nervous systems perhaps we can help millions of people with this disease without the harmful side effects of drugs.”

Beginning in 1992, the focus of Takeda’s research has been on the relationship between subluxation, allergic disease, asthma, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel disorder and ulcerative colitis. He became interested in this after observing common patterns of spinal distortions and subluxation in patients presenting with these problems. He observed that many of these people got better following chiropractic care. This convinced him that chiropractic care was the answer to these health problems and that he needed to look into it in more detail.

As Takeda pointed out, “Allergic diseases are a large group of disorders that include: pollinosis, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, hay fever, bronchial asthma, drug allergies, Crohn’s disease and inflammatory bowel disease to name a few. In Japan alone these diseases affect tens of millions of people. It affects their quality of life in terms of physical strength, immune deficiency, and autonomic imbalance. It doesn’t stop there as it affects their social well-being, schoolwork and on the job productivity. You must also consider the terrible side effects of the steroid medications and immunosuppresants that are given to treat these patients.”

While the results are exciting, more research is needed, according to Dr. Matthew McCoy, Editor of the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research. “Clearly the results of Dr. Takeda’s study are something to be excited about and they are not surprising considering other research that shows improved immune and nervous system function following chiropractic care,” stated Dr. McCoy.

Chiropractors correct misalignments and related problems of the spine that interfere with how the nerves work. These problems in the spine are called vertebral subluxations and can be corrected by chiropractors with painless adjustments to the affected spinal bones.

Other Digestive Disorders

Including: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Kidney, Incontinence, Interstitial Cystitis.

The types and frequencies of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms reported after chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. Leboeuf-Yde C, Axen I, Ahlefeldt G, et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999:22(9):559-564.

Twenty consecutive patients from 87 Swedish chiropractors answered questionnaires on return visits. A total of 1,504 questionnaires were completed and returned. Twenty-three per cent of patients reported improvement in nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, including:

  • Easier to breathe (98 patients)
  • Improved digestive function (92)
  • Clearer/better/sharper vision (49)
  • Improved circulation (34)
  • Less ringing in the ears (10)
  • Acne/eczema better (8)
  • Dysmenorrhoea better (7)
  • Asthma/allergies better (6)
  • Sense of smell heightened (3)
  • Reduced blood pressure (2)
  • Numbness in tongue gone (1)
  • Hiccups gone (1)
  • Menses function returned (1)
  • Cough disappeared (1)
  • Double vision disappeared (1)
  • Tunnel vision disappeared (1)
  • Less nausea (1)

Chiropractic Care and Disc Herniation

Post-traumatic findings of the spine after earlier vertebral fracture in young patients. Kerttula LI, Serlo WS, Tervonan OA, et al. Spine, May 1, 2000:25(9) pp1104-1108.

Fourteen patients aged 8.8-20.8 years who had a history of wedge-shaped vertebral compression fracture at least one year prior were compared to 14 controls. The majority of the children who had the trauma had disc degeneration and endplate changes while only one of the 14 in the control group had degeneration with endplate damage.

Recurrent low back pain and early disc degeneration in the young. Salminen JJ, Erkintalo MO, Pentti J et al. Spine 1999; 24(3):1316-21.

Out of 1,503 14 year olds 7.8%, reported recurrent low back pain (LBP). The children had MRIs at 15 and 18 years of age and were questioned about their LBP at ages 15, 18 and 22. Those children who showed signs of disc degeneration at age 15 were 16 times more likely to report LBP at age 23.

The study concluded: “Individuals with disc degeneration soon after the phase of rapid physical growth not only have an increased risk of recurrent low back pain but also a long-term risk of recurrent pain up to early adulthood.”

Management of cervical disc herniation with upper cervical chiropractic care: a case study. Eriksen K. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1998 21(1):51-56.

A 34-year-old man with severe neck, lower back and radicular pain of 1 year duration had previously received care from multiple medical specialists with little or no results. An MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a C6-C7 herniated nucleus pulposus. A needle electromyogram examination confirmed the presence of a C6-C7 radiculopathy with radiculopathic changes from C4-C7. X-ray analysis showed that the atlas and axis were misaligned. The patient was adjusted using Grostic procedures by hand. Within one month there were dramatic improvements in all subjective and objective findings At a one year follow-up it was concluded that surgery was not necessary.

Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical follow-up: study of 27 patients receiving chiropractic care for cervical and lumbar disc herniations Ben Eliyahu, DJ. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 19 No. 19 Nov/Dec 1996.

Twenty-seven patients with MRI documented and symptomatic disc herniations of the cervical or lumbar spine were given chiropractic spinal care, flexion distraction, physiotherapy and rehabilitative exercises. Post-care MRIs revealed that 63% of the patients had a reduced or completely resorbed disc herniation. 78% of the patients were able to return to work in their pre-disability occupations.

L5 subluxation: a cause of interstitial cystitis. Hammer W. Dynamic Chiropractic, 1997 (April 7):14.

This is the case of a 28-year-old male who suffered from urinary frequency, perineal pain and mild low back and buttock pain. An MRI confirmed a lateral L5 disc bulge and a fixation at L5/S1. After two adjustments to the 5th lumbar vertebrae the patient’s pelvic and urological symptoms disappeared. The paper below discusses the same condition but because the authors are MDs they corrected the problems using surgery.

Lumbar nerve root compression and interstitial cystitis – response to decompressive surgery. Gillespie, L, Bray R, Levin R. British Journal of Urology, 1991;68;361-364.

This paper discusses ten patients with interstitial cystitis (nine females, one male). MRI revealed nerve compression at L5 and after surgery the symptoms in 9 of the 10 cleared up.

Reduction of a confirmed C5-C6 disc herniation following specific chiropractic spinal manipulation: a case study. Siciliano MA, Bernard TA, Bentley, NJ. Chiropractic: The Journal of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation Vol. 8 No. 1 April 1992.

This is the case of a 39-year-old male cable technician who complained of right neck and arm pain. He had a football injury 20 years prior and had some similar, temporary pain at that time. He now had an aching, deep pain running from the base of his neck to the right elbow and sometimes running sharply down his arm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thermography and Kronamaz muscle testing apparatus documented a C5-C6 disc herniation. Under chiropractic care the patient became symptom free and a later MRI revealed a reduction in the herniation.

Low force chiropractic care of two patients with sciatic neuropathy and lumbar disc herniation. Richards GL et al. Am J Chiro Med Mar 1990;3(1):25-32.

Two patients with sciatic neuropathy and confirmed disc herniation received chiropractic care. A follow-up CAT scan in the first patient revealed complete absence of disc herniation. A follow up scan in the second case revealed the continued presence of a silent disc bulge at the L3-4 level and partial decrease in a herniation at the L4-5 level. The bulge appeared to have shifted away from the nerve root. Both patients’ pain levels decreased from severe to minimal as they regained the ability to stand, sit and walk for longer periods without discomfort and lifting also became easier. They were able to return to full time work capacity at three and nine months respectively.

Disc regeneration: reversibility is possible in spinal osteoarthritis. Ressel, OJ. ICA Review March April 1989 pp. 39-61.

Osteoarthritis has been regarded as a product of “wear and tear” of the spine. This paper reveals that chiropractic management of osteoarthritis can lead to its arrest and even reversal.

Low back pain and the lumbar intervertebral disc: clinical consideration for the doctor of chiropractic. Troyanovich SJ, Harrison DD, Harrison DE. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Feb. 1999; vol. 22, no. 2, pp 96-104.

This paper lists various causes of low back pain, noting what findings in patient histories, physical examinations, and diagnostic imaging represent “red flags” that indicate the need for referral to a specialist for surgical intervention.

After patients are screened for red flags, conservative treatment should be the first line of treatment for patients without absolute signs for surgical intervention. The authors concluded:

Chiropractic management has been shown through multiple studies to be safe, clinically effective, cost-effective, and to provide a high degree of patient satisfaction. As a result, in patients . . . for whom the surgical indications are not absolute, a minimum of 2 or 3 months of chiropractic management is indicated.

Reabsorption of a herniated cervical disc following chiropractic treatment utilizing the atlas orthogonal technique: a case report. Robinson, G. Kevin. Abstracts from the 14th annual upper cervical spine conference Nov 22-23, 1997 Life University, Marietta, Ga. Pub. In Chiropractic Research Journal, Vol. 5, No.1, spring 1998.

A 44 year old man with a herniated cervical disc as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and adjusted utilizing chiropractic care (atlas orthogonal technique) is discussed. His symptoms included severe neck pain, constant burning, left arm pain and left shoulder pain plus paresthesia in the index finger of the left hand. Patient also had diminished grip strength on left hand, a hyporeflexive biceps and triceps on the left as well as a C6 and C7 sensory deficit on the left. The MRI scan revealed a large left lateral herniated disc at the C6-7 level.

By the fifth week of care, the patient’s symptoms of severe neck, shoulder, and arm pain were completely resolved. The patient’s numbness and grip strength improved consistently during the following six months. Comparative MRI obtained 14 months following the initial exam revealed total resolution of the herniated cervical disc.

Treatment of multiple lumbar disc herniations in an adolescent athlete utilizing flexion distraction and rotational manipulation. Hession EF, Donald GD. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1993; 16:185-192.

This is the case of a 15-year-old high school athlete with acute low back pain that began after weightlifting in preparation for a football game. MRI demonstrated disc herniations of the lumbar area. Chiropractic care resulted in long-term resolution of the symptoms. Patient returned to playing football.

Correction of multiple herniated lumbar disc by chiropractic intervention. Sweat R. Journal of Chiropractic Case Reports. Vol. 1 No. 1 Jan 1993.

This is the case of a 39 year old patient presenting with severe pain in his lower back, radiating into the buttocks, the thigh and his left calf and foot. A herniated nucleus pulposus at L-4 L-5 and L-5 S-1 was confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and surgical procedures were recommended. Chiropractic was begun utilizing the Atlas Orthogonal Percussion Instrument on the atlas vertebrae. After 4 weeks of care, he showed a 50% improvement and was not using medications. After six months of care a subsequent MRI radiologist’s report indicated that a herniation was not present.

Chiropractic Care and Ear Infections

Chiropractic Helps in Prevention of Recurring Ear Infections.

In the October 1998 issue of the Ladies Home Journal appeared an article entitled, “Chiropractic Adjustments for Chronic Ear Infections.” This article reviewed several studies showing the effectiveness of chiropractic care for preventing re-occurring ear infections known as Otitis Media or OM.

According to the article, reoccurring ear infections account for over 35% of all pediatrician visits in the United States. Sometimes these infections are due to bacteria and sometimes these are due to a virus. The most common medical care for this situation has been antibiotics, even though antibiotics have no effect on viruses. While the article mentions that the antibiotic may be effective in an acute bacterial infection, they do nothing to stop repeat infections. Research and statistics is now showing that repeated use of antibiotics is contributing to future infections by creating drug-resistant infections. The surgical approach has met with little long term results as the “tubes” placed in children’s ears often come out and usually require a child to be put under general anesthesia to do the surgery.

The article in the Ladies Home Journal states, “Chiropractic care is thought to prevent recurrent infections by correcting misalignments (called subluxations) and allowing normal fluid drainage from the middle ear.” What the article took special note of was that 6 months after the chiropractic care was given to the children in the study, 80 percent had not suffered a recurrence of ear infections.

In closing the article did make a profound statement. They made a recommendation to parents on this subject. “If your child is between ear infections and his doctor suggests ear-tube surgery, ask if you can try chiropractic treatment first.” While we agree with that sentiment, we suggest you not wait for a period between episodes, and you don’t have to “ask” permission from any other doctor to seek chiropractic care. As the sneaker company said, “just do it!”

“Chiropractic Care of 401 Children with Otitis Media: A Pilot Study”. Found in the March 1998 edition of Alternative Therapies and authored by Fallon and Edelman.

Conclusion:

“There is a strong correlation between chiropractic adjustment and the resolution of otitis media for the children in this study, which can serve as a starting point from which those in the chiropractic profession can examine their role.”

By the age of three, over two thirds of all children have had one or more episodes of otitis media or middle ear infection. There are numerous problems with antibiotic usage for children with ear infections such as: allergic reactions, GI upset, destruction of the gut’s intestinal flora leading to yeast proliferation and antibiotic resistance. Tubes in the ears have a 98% recurrence of infection within two months while 25% of those with tubes suffer from hearing loss years later.

The use of osteopathic manipulative treatment as adjuvant therapy in children with recurrent acute otitis media, Mills, MV; Henley, CE, Barnes, LLB et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:861-866.

57 patients 6 months to 6 years old with 3 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) in the previous 6 months, or 4 in the previous year were placed randomly into 2 groups: one receiving routine pediatric care (32), the other receiving routine care plus osteopathic manipulative treatment (25).

The osteopathic patients had fewer episodes of AOM, fewer surgical procedures, and more surgery-free months and more normal tympanograms. No adverse reactions were reported.

This study suggest osteopathic manipulations may prevent or decrease surgical intervention or antibiotic overuse with children with AOM.

The management of acute otitis media using S.O.T. and S.O.T. Craniopathy. Hochman J. Today’s Chiropractic May/June 2001. Pages 41-42.

Sisters aged 2 and 4 with chronic ear infections who had received numerous courses of antibiotics over at least two years (no improvement) were adjusted using SOT and Dynamic Spinal Analysis methods. After the first visit, the mother reported that both children were “doing much better.” No more ear infections have been reported.

The management of acute otitis media using SOT and SOT cranial. Hochman, J. Sorsi Communicator Vol 14 No. 2 July 2001.

A baby boy, age 6 months, was scheduled for ear tubes. His atlas was adjusted. His ear infection completely cleared up by the next day. Tubes were never inserted.

Two [girls] aged 3 and 4 with chronic ear infections and upper respiratory dysfunction [received] upper dorsal and cranial adjustments. No more ear infections have occurred since the first visit.

Chronic recurrent otitis media: a common pediatric malady. Fysh PN. The philosophy, art and science of chiropractic. Lisbon 2000 Symposium proceedings. Pp. 64-68. Pub by the Foundation for the advancement of chiropractic tenets and science, ICA, Arlington, Virginia.

It is the author’s experience that none of the children in his study needed tympanostomy tubes inserted. Within 4 to 7 days of the commencement of the spinal adjusting program, the fluid level behind the tympanic membrane was most often resolved.

The effect of the correction of the vertebral subluxation on chronic otitis media in children. Heagy, DT Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1996; 2/2:6-7.

Four patients (from 14 months to 7 years of age) who had all had multiple antibiotic regimens responded to adjustments.

Case History Bofshever, H. Coral Springs, FL. ICPA Newsletter Nov/Dec 1999.

“An upset father presented to my office on 4-30-99, with his 9 year old son, who has been having chronic ear infections.”

So begins this case history. The boy had been having ear infections since he was 3 and they had been getting “progressively worse.” Five years prior tubes were put in his ears. The child was scheduled for another ear surgery and to have his swollen tonsils and adenoids removed. Child had been “on and off antibiotics at least every six weeks for the past six years.”

Chiropractic examination revealed subluxation complexes at C2 and C6. After the second adjustment father commented that the boy is “much more alert and is concentrating better at school.” Teachers noticed the improvement.” The boy stopped complaining about his ears after the first adjustment. At a six week evaluation there was no ear effusion in either ear. Tonsils and adenoids were normal size. ENT (ear nose and throat) doctor cancelled surgery. After 5 months, the child has had no ear infections, no sore throats, no colds, no flu and has been on no medications.

Chiropractic care of 401 children with otitis media: a pilot study. Fallon and Edelman. Alternative Therapies March 1998 4(2):93

There is a strong correlation between chiropractic adjustments and the resolution of otitis media for the children in this study, Chiropractors do not treat otitis media or any other malady, rather we correct the cause of the vertebral subluxation and allow the power that made the body heals the body. It happens no other way.

Case study: chiropractic results with a child with recurring otitis media accompanied by effusion. Peet, JB Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1996;2:8-10.

This is the study of a 5 year-old male who had recurring ear infections every three to six weeks for the previous two years. He had been on antibiotic therapy. The child began chiropractic care and for the next six month period had only one infection.

Irritable child with chronic ear effusion/infections responds to chiropractic care. Thomas D. Chiropractic Pediatrics 1997; 3(2) 13-14.

This child had chronic ear effusion infections since birth which continued regularly until 12 months of age. He was adjusted at 11 months for an atlas subluxation. After 8 weeks of care the child had not experienced an ear infection for one month and had not had any drugs or antibiotics since chiropractic care. Improvements in personality and behavior were also noted by the mother, babysitters and the chiropractor.

Allergy airway disease and otitis media in children. Todd NW, Feldman CM, Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1985: 10(1):27-35.

Musculoskeletal eustachian tube dysfunction is an important etiological factor for otitis media. The eustachian tube dysfunction manifests primarily by poor ventilation from the nasopharynx to the middle ear, by allowing negative pressure in the middle ear.

The role of the chiropractic adjustment in the care and treatment of 332 children with otitis media. Fallon, JM. Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Oct 1997, 2(2):167-183.

311 of the 332 had a history of prior antibiotic use. 53.7% of the children had their first bout of otitis media between the ages of 6 months and 1 year and a total of 69.9% of the subjects in the study had their first bout of OM under a year of age. This is consistent with the findings of others.

The children were 27-days-old to five-years-old. The average number of adjustments administered by types of otitis media were as follows: acute otitis media (127 children) 4 adjustments; chronic/serous otitis media (104 children) 5 adjustments; for mixed type of bilateral otitis media (10 children) 5.3 adjustments; where no otitis was initially detected (74 children) 5.88 adjustments. The number of days it took to normalize the otoscopic examination was for acute 6.67, chronic/serous 8.57 and mixed 8.3. The number of days it took to normalize the tympanographic examination was acute 8.35, chronic/serous 10.18 and mixed 10.9 days. The overall recurrence rate over a six month period from initial presentation in the office was for acute 11.02%, chronic/serous 16.34%, for mixed 30% and for none present 17.56%.

Chiropractic Care and Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia Syndrome – (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome)What is FMS according to medical science? FMS is a chronic (i.e. long standing) condition. The patient has muscular pain and tenderness throughout the body and frequently other symptoms like sleep disturbances, fatigue, hearing disturbances, muscle twitches, cold extremities, headaches & migraines, TMJ syndrome and blurred vision. For a diagnosis of fibromyalgia to be concluded, although fibromyalgia can be over diagnosed [1], the patient must exhibit tenderness in a minimum of 11 of 18 pre-defined points on the body (see figures). Have a good look at the location of these points, as I think that along with other evidence they provide a pointer to a possible cause of FMS.

Although the exact cause of FMS has apparently not been discovered and there are various research theories including poor nutrition, stress factors, alterations in the pattern of sleep and changes in neuroendocrine transmitters (serotonin, substance P, growth hormone and cortisol) a common theme which appears to emerge throughout the research is that of poor posture, cervical spine dysfunction and degeneration in the spinal joints.

Hiemeyer et al[2] for example, examined 40 patients with FMS and noted the relationship between posture and tender points. They discuss disappearance of tenderness at a number of the tender point sites following correction of posture and conclude; “flexed posture could be an important factor in generalized muscular pain, and posture therefore should be an essential part of the clinical examination of patients with FMS.”

Muller et al[3] state “In fibromyalgia as well as in low back pain we frequently find disturbances of the posture of vertebral column clinically and radiologically.” Further Buskila et al[4] examined two groups of patients, a control group (59) consisting of patients with leg fractures and a study group (102) with a neck injuries. “FMS was diagnosed in 21.6% of people with neck injuries versus 1.7% of those in the control group” and further “FMS was 13 times more frequent following a neck injury than following a lower extremity injury” and “almost all symptoms were more common and severe in the group with the neck injury.”

Schnur[5] conducted a review of the record of 61 patients with primary fibromaylgia syndrome (PFS) and found “in over 50% of examined patients diagnostic details referred to chronic lumbar and cervical spine syndromes” and chronic lumbar and cervical spine syndromes pre-dispose the person to development of PFS.

A study by Ambrogio et al[6] is interesting if only for the finding that “from a patient’s perspective, neck support is an important part of a comprehensive physiotherapy program.” Thus FMS patients, in a small study, indicate that to have some support for their necks was important to them. This is another pointer, I assert, to the cervical spine being heavily involved in the origin of FMS. In fact, I believe, like others before me, that it is highly likely that a subluxation at the level of the atlas is the causal factor in the generation of FMS, and patients should be checked by professional precision upper cervical chiropractors. Such subluxations not only initiate pain in the neck, head, and shoulders, but also have been shown to directly cause postural distortions[7].

A study by Larsson R, Oberg PA, Larsson SE[8] is interesting because the authors propose “chronic neck pain may increase the transmitter activity of neuropeptides in the upper cervical medulla causing impairment of blood flow in the local muscle” and conclude “an impaired regulation of the microcirculation in the local muscle is of central importance in chronic trapezius myalgia, causing nioceptive pain.” This study, these two studies[9],[10] and many other studies by Larsson et al, show patients with neck and shoulder pain as having reduced blood flow through these painful muscles, further exacerbating the pain. I assert that if your “head is not on straight”, your cervical and shoulder muscles fight to maintain your head erect. These spasms I believe cause the neck, back and shoulder pain associated with FMS. Further atrophy (wasting) of these muscles due most probably to reduced blood flow just compounds the painful problem.

Could it be that an upper cervical subluxation uncorrected over a long period directly causes FMS? Let’s look at Dr Daniel Clark’s (www.uppercervicalillustrations.com) graphic opposite. (Reprinted with permission from Daniel O. Clark, D.C.)

This is what is known in upper cervical chiropractic circles to occur to the body/skeleton when one sustains an atlas subluxation. Now look at the location of the tender points in the previous diagrams. I contend that if you overlay those tender points over this diagram, the tender points will correlate highly to muscle tension caused by the misaligned skeleton. The neck, shoulder, pelvis and knees are all affected by the upper cervical subluxation. The 10 tender points to the top of the body (front and rear) could be caused by the muscles straining to hold the head perpendicular. The others may be due to the unlevel pelvis and corresponding functional short leg. Now think about the earlier references to poor posture and cervical spine disorders in those people with FMS. Is there a connection? I think so.

Not many therapies appear to be successful at alleviating FMS symptoms. One study by Freidman and Nelson[11] does discuss some success with some individuals using “ice water circulating through hollow metal tubes” which was delivered “intraorally for 15 minutes in the posterior maxillary area”. According to the authors, 9 out of 12 patients had “reduced cervical pain perception” and electromyography revealed less upper trapezius signal, or lessening of pain in the trapezius muscles. The authors suggest a “strong trigemino-cervical relationship to neck pain and headache.” There’s that reference to neck (cervical) pain again!

If an upper cervical subluxation is responsible for postural changes, neck pain and the development of FMS as I suggest then upper cervical chiropractic may have a role to play in the treatment of FMS patients.

Like conventional treatment studies however, there haven’t been a lot of studies which demonstrate the efficacy of a chiropractic treatment for FMS, but if you read the chiropractic studies the results appear to be quite favorable.

A study by Blunt, Rajwani and Guerriero[12] of 21 patients consisted of a utilizing “chiropractic spinal manipulation, soft tissue therapy and passive stretching” and the results indicated that “chiropractic management improved patients’ cervical and lumbar ranges of motion .. and reported pain levels”. A study by Hains[13] combining spinal manipulation and ischemic compression found results of “statistically significant lessening of pain intensity and corresponding improvement in quality of sleep and fatigue levels.” Hains and Hains conclude that the “study suggests a potential role for chiropractic care in the management of fibromyalgia.”

In a study of 23 patients with fibromyalgia by Amalu[14] he states “The most common medical treatments for FMS and CFS can include one or more of the following: tricyclic antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, physical therapy, gentle stretching, low impact exercises, stress reduction, counseling, and lidocaine injections with or without hydrocortisone”. It is not uncommon for FMS or CFS patients themselves to try many treatments including but not limited to physical therapy, massage, acupuncture, mainstream chiropractic, osteopathy, medications and exercise with little to no improvement. As a result of pursuit of these multiple therapies it is also a common for patients to doubt the efficacy of yet another treatment like upper cervical chiropractic.

However, you will note that Amalu’s “treatment consisted solely of corrections to aberrant arthrokinematic function of the occipito-atlanto-axial complex.” In other words treatment to correct dysfunction of the upper cervical spine [C0(skull)-C1(atlas)-C2(axis)]. He uses an upper cervical chiropractic method of adjusting known as Applied Upper Cervical Biomechanics (International Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association-IUCCA) in combination with paraspinal infrared scans to measure the stabilization of the upper cervical joint complex and hence effectiveness of the adjustment.

Amalu found “Upon stabilizing the upper cervical spine .. improvement in the symptomatic profile of both FMS and CFS was 92-100% (VAS[15]) for all 23 patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is mentioned because invariably FMS patients are also diagnosed with CFS. Read the entire case for the patient outcomes.

In conclusion Amalu states “The body of literature detailing the upper cervical spine’s role in affecting global physiology is substantial. Further research into this area of the spine, combined with objective monitoring of neurophysiology, may reveal that chiropractic does indeed offer a consistent conservative solution for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.”

Chiropractic Care and Headaches

Headaches Helped by Chiropractic Says Research

In the September 2001 issue of the Journal of Manipulative and Physio logical Therapeutics was a report on the effectiveness of chiropractic care, specifically labeled “SMT” in the study, for patients with chronic headaches. The data for this report was gathered from nine trials involving 683 patients with chronic headache.

In this study chiropractic adjustments (termed SMT in the study) were compared to massage and medications for short term relief of up to six weeks after a month of care. The question of long term health benefits was not addressed. Results showed that the chiropractic group did better than the massage group. The group that received medication also showed relief however; the rate of side effects for the medication group was considerably higher than the chiropractic group. This difference gave a decidedly large advantage to chiropractic over the medication.

According to the report, the financial cost of headaches is great, with billions of dollars spent annually for lost productivity and treatment. The study also noted that medical practitioners have commonly treated people affected with headaches. Recently however, they are increasingly turning to non-medical or alternative therapies for relief. A recent study from Harvard University by Dr. Eisenberg reported that one of the most common alternative practitioners sought out for the treatment of headaches was the chiropractor. This study confirms what most chiropractors and their patients have already known, that chiropractic is one of the most effective avenues of health for headache sufferers.

Vectored upper cervical manipulation for chronic sleep bruxism, headache and cervical spine pain in a child. Knutson, G.J, Manipulative Physiol Ther Vol 26 No. 6 July/August 2003.

This is the case of a six-year-old who had chronic sleep bruxism (causing abnormal tooth wear), morning headaches and cervical spine (neck) pain.

Adjustments to the upper cervical spine using the atlas transverse process as the contact point. There was “complete relief” of her chronic symptoms along with elimination of abnormal joint and structural problems.

Occipital headaches stemming from the lateral atlanto-axial (C1-2) joint. Aprill C, Axinn MJ, Bogduk N. Cephalalgia 2002 Feb;22(1):15-22

The lateral atlanto-axial joints (C1-2) are capable of causing pain in the occiput, but few clinical studies have validated this source of occipital headache. Patients presenting with occipital pain underwent diagnostic blocks of their lateral atlanto-axial joints if they demonstrated clinical features presumptively suggestive of a C1-2 origin for their pain. Of 34 patients investigated, 21 obtained complete relief of their headache following diagnostic blocks, indicating that a C1-2 source of occipital pain is not rare. [21/34 = 62%]. The clinical features used to select patients for blocks, however, had a positive predictive value of only 60%.

A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine. Tuchin PJ, Pollard H, Bonello R. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Feb. 2000:23(2), PP.91-5.

This was a six month study of 127 migraine sufferers half of whom had diversified chiropractic adjustments. The other half was the control group. Subjects in the manipulation group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in migraine frequency, headache duration, disability and medication use. 22% of those undergoing chiropractic care reported more than 90% reduction in migraines after two months. About 50% reported significant improvement in severity of migraine episodes.

Evidence report: behavioral and physical treatments for tension type and cervicogenic headache. McCrocy D and Gray R Duke University. 2001.

This report from Duke University compares the effectiveness of drug and other therapies for the most common type of headache – the cervicogenic headache. The report stated that chiropractic is more effective for headache (both in frequency and severity) than other soft tissue therapies and that chiropractic is superior to drug therapy, providing markedly superior long-term results.

Encephalgia/Migraine. Bofshever, H. International Chiropractic Pediatric Newsletter Jan/Feb 2000

A ten year-old girl with chronic, severe migraine (6 times a week for the past 3 years) was unable to go to school due to the severity of her condition. She was treated at a Children’s Hospital by a neurologist.

Chiropractic examination revealed VSC at C1/C2. The patient’s headaches improved following her 3rd adjustment (one week) at which time she stopped using PeriactinT Syrup (prescribed by her pediatrician). By the third week she was back in school and started dance classes for the first time in 2 years, “and actually began to smile again.” She was leading a normal and healthy life for a child her age by the end of the 5th visit.

The anatomic basis for the effectiveness of chiropractic spinal manipulation in treating headache. Hack, GD Abstracts from the 15th annual upper cervical spine conference Nov. 21-22, 1998. CRJ, Vol. VI, No. 1, Spring 1999.

This paper is by the same doctor who led the team that discovered a musculo-ligamentous relationship between the cervical spine (neck) and the dura mater (covering of the brain stem). The author writes:

An increasing body of literature relates headaches to pathology affecting the cervical spine and a number of clinical trials have demonstrated that chiropractic spinal manipulation directed at the neck is valuable for managing headache.

Mobilization of the Spine. Grieve GP (1984) Churchill Livingston, London/New York, 4th edition, 22-23.

All those experienced in manipulation can report numerous examples of migrainous headaches, disequilibrium (vertigo), subjective visual disturbances, feelings of retro-orbital pressure, dysphagia, dysphonia, heaviness of a limb, extra segmental paraesthesia. Restriction of respiratory excursion, abdominal nausea and the cold sciatic leg being relieved by manual or mechanical treatment of the vertebral column.

Unconventional medicine in the United States, Eisenberg, DM et al., NEJM 28 May 1993. Pp.246-252.

Twenty-seven percent of Americans who visit alternative health care providers do so for headache relief.

The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both therapies for prophylaxis of migraine headache. Nelson CF, Bronfort G, Evans R, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, October 1998: Vol. 21, No. 8, pp 511-19.

This study compared the relative effectiveness of treating migraines with chiropractic care, the anti-depressant/anti-anxiety drug amitriptyline (brand name Elavil); and with a combination of both the drug therapy and chiropractic care.

Patients who received only chiropractic showed significant improvement, on a par with those given the powerful prescription drug (though without the side effects). The headache index, from a diary kept by each patient, showed chiropractic to have reduced the severity and frequency of headaches as well or better than the combined therapy or amitriptyline alone at each stage of the study.

Spectrum of pathophysiological disorders in cervicogenic headache and its therapeutic indications. Martelletti P, LaTour D, Giacovazzo M Journal of the Neuromusculoskeletal System 1995; 3:182-7.

Patients were diagnosed with cervicogenic headache (headache arising from neck structures) and received chiropractic care. The patients reported improvement.

Chiropractic care of a 13-year-old with headache and neck pain: a case report. Hewitt, EG, Portland, Oregon. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics. Oct, 1993 Palm Springs, CA. Pub. International Chiropractors Assoc., Arlington, VA.

This report describes a 13 year old female who had suffered from severe headaches and neck pain for five days. Following a series of four chiropractic treatments over a two week period, her headache and neck pain resolved.

Incidence of ponticulus posterior of the atlas in migraine and cervicogenic headache. Wight S, Osborne N, Breen AC. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Jan. 1999; vol. 22, no. 1, pp15-20.

There is a common structural variation of the atlas vertebra called ponticulus posticus (also known as foramen arcuale or “Kimmerle’s anomaly”). Investigators studied the relationship between this condition and headache symptoms in 895 first-time chiropractic patients. The patients had migraine with aura (classical migraine), migraine without aura (common migraine), cervicogenic headache, neck pain only, and other problems. The authors found a significant correlation of ponticulus posticus with migraine without aura. They explain that because the ponticulus posticus is intimately attached to the atlanto-occipital membrane (where the spine and skull meet) and this membrane, in turn, is attached to the dura (the outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord), small tension exerted on the dura may result in excruciating head pain of a type experienced in migraine.

A case series of migraine changes following a manipulative therapy trial. Tuchin PJ. Australasian Chiropractic & Osteopathy, Nov. 1997; 66(3), pp. 85-91.

This report discusses four cases of migraine that responded dramatically to chiropractic adjustments. Many self reported symptoms were either eliminated or substantially reduced.

Average frequency of episodes was reduced by 90% with the length of each headache reduced by 38%. Medication use dropped 94%. Other symptoms associated with migraine were reduced including nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia.

Evaluation of the Toftness system of chiropractic adjusting for subjects with chronic back pain, chronic tension headaches, or primary dysmenorrhea. Snyder, BJ, Sanders, GE Chiropractic Technique, 1996;8:3-9.

This is the study of 24 subjects with chronic back pain, 19 subjects with chronic tension headaches and 26 subjects with dysmenorrhea who underwent a series of Toftness adjustments or sham interventions. Toftness adjustments had significant clinical benefit, whereas those receiving sham interventions did not improve.

Chronic pediatric migraine-type headaches treated by long-term Inderol prior to chiropractic care, a case report. Haney, VL, Colorado Springs, CO. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics. Oct, 1993 Palm Springs, CA. Pub. International Chiropractors Assoc., Arlington, VA

An 11-year-old pediatric female had an eight year history of severe migraine-type headaches, and a four year history of 20 mg. intake of Inderol daily. The headaches were still incapacitating the child approximately two times per week, despite medication. The child had been a hit and run victim at 18 months, with her first “known” headache occurring at about the age of three.

Cervical and thoraco-lumbo-pelvic x-rays revealed cervical hypolordosis, C1/C2 hyperextension subluxation and pelvic unleveling. Correction was accomplished using diversified style adjustment. The patient’s initial complaint of severe headaches resolved.

Follow-up x-rays show that there has been a decrease in thoracic and lumbar curvatures. She has slowly been weaned from Inderol, and is off all pain medications as well.

The effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1997; 20:326-330.

This is a randomized controlled trial performed at the University of Odense, Denmark by chiropractors and medical doctors.

Of 53 patients suffering from frequent headaches, 28 received high-velocity, low-amplitude cervical manipulation twice a week for three weeks. The remaining 25 received low-level laser in the upper cervical region and deep friction massage in the lower cervical/upper thoracic region, also twice a week for three weeks.

The use of analgesics decreased by 36% in the manipulation group, but was unchanged in the soft-tissue group; this difference was statistically significant. The number of headache hours per day decreased by 69% in the manipulation group compared with 37% in the soft-tissue group; this was significant. Finally, the headache intensity per episode decreased by 36% in the manipulation group, compared with 17% in the soft-tissue group; this was significant.

Spinal manipulation vs. Amitriptyline for the treatment of chronic tension-type headaches: a randomized clinical trial. Boline PD, Kasaak K, Bronfort G, Nelson C, Anderson AV, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1995; 18: 148-154.

Six weeks of drug therapy were compared to six weeks of chiropractic adjustments. The drug therapy was considered slightly more effective than chiropractic however 82% of the patients had side effects which included drowsiness, weight gain and dry mouth. Cardiac problems and glaucoma were also associated with amitriptyline use.

Chiropractic patients had no side effects apart from slight neck stiffness in the first two weeks of the study that 5% of the patients reported. After four weeks, chiropractic and drug therapy was halted in both groups. The patients who used drugs began having headaches again while the chiropractic group continued to express headache relief, as well as higher levels of energy and vitality than the drug therapy group.

A controlled trial of manipulation for migraine. Aust and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 1978;8:589-593. Parker GB, Tupling H, Pryor D.

Spinal manipulation administered by chiropractors, spinal manipulation administered by medical practitioners and physical therapists and a mobilization procedure administered by physical therapists were studied.

Eighty-five patients received two manipulations per week over a 2-month period. At the end of the study, all three groups showed clinically significant improvement in the frequency, intensity, and duration of migraine headache episodes.

Functional disorders (fixations) of the spine in children. Lewit K. Manuelle Therapie, J.A. Barth, Leipzig, 1973. Chap.2.7. Pp.50-54.

In a total of 57 children’s migraine cases, 48 had excellent results from manipulative therapy. Functional disorders in children may manifest themselves as sleep disorders, loss of appetite, psychic problems or dysmenorrhea and may not exist as spinal pain. Studies on healthy children revealed pelvic subluxations in 40% of all school children, cervical fixation in 15.8%. After manipulative treatments, the problems rarely recurred.

The effect of manipulation (toggle recoil technique) for headaches with upper cervical joint dysfunction: a pilot study. Whittingham, W, Ellis WB, and Molyneux TP,J Manipulative Physiol Ther, July/August 1994, 17(6): 369-375.

Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females) had chronic headaches with upper cervical joint dysfunction. Significant reduction in the severity and frequency of headaches was reported in a large majority of the subjects (24 out of 26).

Chiropractic care of a 13 year-old with headache and neck pain: a case report. Hewitt EG. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, Sept. 1994; 38(3): 160-162.

Patient had injured her neck in gymnastics. A 13 year-old female suffered from unremitting headache and neck pain for five days. She described them as a throbbing and stabbing pressure that normally occurred once per week and lasted approximately one hour. She had missed one week of school. Her family MD had recommended seeing a chiropractor.

After four chiropractic treatments over a two-week period, her headache and neck pain resolved.” At a four-week follow-up, she remained pain free.

Chiropractic care of children with headaches: five case reports. Anderson-Peacock, ED, Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1996 1(1) 1996:18-27.

Five children presented with varying types of headaches to a family-based chiropractic practice. In each case, spinal subluxations were present. Following reduction of those subluxations through chiropractic adjustments the child’s chief complaint remised. Adjunctive therapy (education on diet, posture and exercise) was not given until the headaches stopped. Thus, it was felt that the headache reduction may have been due to the restoration of nervous system function through the chiropractic adjustment.

Chiropractic Care and HIV

Chiropractic with HIV and AIDSThe goal of chiropractic care is to free patients from vertebral subluxations, a serious interference to life and health. Releasing subluxations permits the body to work more efficiently.

Research studies are increasingly revealing that the addressing of “subluxations” has a beneficial effect on many levels of one’s health.

The immune system function is one of the most exciting areas of study in chiropractic. More and more research is pointing to an immune system enhancing effect from spinal adjustments.

AIDS/HIV Research

Chronic Hyperemesis in two siblings with AIDS. Fallon, J Int’l Chiropractic Association Review Summer 2002.

Two male siblings ages 4 and 6 with “HIV infections” and “full-blown AIDS.”

Both boys suffered from severe Hyperemesis (vomiting) associated with a hyperactive gag reflex and were on a liquid diet: the six-year-old by mouth and the 4-year-old by gastric tube. The 6-year-old had a viral load of 1,200 and was on a therapy regime of antiviral drugs. His 4-year-old brother, with a viral load of 1,000,000 was on a cocktail of HIV medications (after the monotherapy failed).

The 4-year-old had a history of chronic ear infections and the 6-year-old had severe learning disabilities. Both boys needed a walker or bilateral canes. The older boy had uncontrollable dribbling.

Spinal examination of the 4-year-old revealed subluxations at occiput/atlas, C1, C4, T4, T9 and Tl2. Spinal examination of the 6-year-old revealed subluxations at C1, T1, and T8 and AS of the right ileum.

Adjustments of the subluxated segments were begun; each boy was initially seen 2 times a week for three weeks.

Within three weeks of initial care the older boy could walk better, he was able to use only one cane instead of two, he ate solid food for the first time since birth, his chronic drooling stopped as did his gagging and vomiting. However, if he went longer than 30 days without an adjustment his gag reflex returned as well as the uncontrolled vomiting.

The younger boy was able to stop the gastric feeding and take his liquid food orally, his vomiting reduced and his chronic ear infections ceased. In a few months he was able to eat solid food. His viral load dropped from 1,000,000 to 5! As long as he was adjusted 1-2 times per month his vomiting did not return.

Not vocalizing well. Absence of T-cells, immune dysfunction, has colds all the time. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association newsletter. November 1996.

This is the case of a male 5 year old who was diagnosed with malformation of cervical spine, severe scoliosis, and occiput position severely anterior to cervical spine. The child was not vocalizing well, had an absence of T-cells and immune dysfunction, and had colds all the time. Surgery had been considered to correct skull positioning.

In the first series of adjustments, we adjusted the lad in a sitting position utilizing the infant toggle headpiece. The Atlas was adjusted ASL.

Child was re-evaluated in native country and medical staff stated that everything was now normal.

Child returned to U.S. for care 6 months later. Vocabulary was now normal. Head position – normal. No colds evident during these months. Scoliosis was greatly reduced.

The effects of specific upper cervical adjustments on the CD4 counts of HIV positive patients. Selano JL, Hightower BC, Pfleger B, et al. Chiropractic Research Journal. 1994; 3(1): 32-39.

All the patients in this group had HIV and full-blown AIDS and were receiving medical treatment. In addition, five patients started chiropractic care. After 6 months, those not under chiropractic care suffered a decline of 7.96% in CD4 levels (and two deaths) while the group receiving chiropractic adjustments experienced a 48% increase in CD4 cell counts.

This indicates that correction of upper cervical subluxation could improve immunocompetence.

Note: The study was originally intended to go on for one year, but after two patients in the control group died of AIDS, Dr. Grostic decided to end the study and put the surviving controls under chiropractic care.

Chiropractic and HIV infection. Martin, C; Journal of the American Chiropractic Association 1995; 3212: 41-4.

This paper reviewed prior work by chiropractors on HIV patients that suggest that vertebral manipulation may have wide-ranging effects. From improvement in symptoms like peripheral neuropathy, to stimulation of immune system components, chiropractic is encouraging to individual well-being. The reduction of stress, education of the patient towards an immunopositive lifestyle and the removal of nervous system interference are the central benefits which chiropractic offers.

Chiropractic Care and Immune System

Adjustments and your Immune SystemEnhanced Phagocytic Cell respiratory Burst Induced by Spinal Manipulation. JMPT 1991:14:399-408.

This study was designed to measure the effect that a Chiropractic adjustment has on the immune system. Blood was taken from each of the patients 15 minutes before and 15 minutes after the adjustment. These results were compared to patient’s blood test who received a sham (pretend) adjustment. The immune response from subjects who received the adjustment was significantly higher after than before treatment, and significantly higher than the response from the sham subjects.

Patients who come in with colds, sore throats, sinus congestion and stomach viruses often remark that their recovery seems to be accelerated by the chiropractic adjustment. Recent scientific developments now lend support to the idea that Chiropractic correction of the subluxation can aid the immune responses of the body by reducing nerve interference.

This is one of the most exciting areas of chiropractic. More and more research is pointing to an immune system enhancement effect of the spinal adjustment.

The effects of chiropractic on the immune system: a review of the literature. Allen JM, Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 1993; 23:132-135.

This is a summary of recent research implying a connection between chiropractic adjustments and immunocompetence. The literature suggests that the nervous system plays a role in the modulation of the immune response and that chiropractic adjustments influence T and B lymphocyte numbers, natural killer cell numbers, antibody levels, phagocytic activity and plasma endorphin levels. The few studies attempting to measure the effect of chiropractic or manipulative treatment on the immune response are reviewed.

The anatomical and physiological connections between the immune system and the nervous system suggest that the nervous system plays a role in the modulation of the immune response.

Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function. Felton, D.L., Felton, S.Y., Bellinger, D.L., et al. Immunol Rev 100:225-260, 1987.

This is one of a growing number of papers by researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology exploring the relationship between the nervous system and the immune system. Potential mechanisms of action are discussed.

A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. Van Breda, Wendy M. and Juan M. Journal of Chiropractic Research Summer 1989.

Children under chiropractic had less use of medications, including antibiotics.

An overview of neuroimmunomodulation and a possible correlation with musculoskeletal system function. Fidelibus J. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 12:4, 1989.

Receptors for neuromodulators and neurohormones have been identified on human T-lymphocytes. It is believed that the immune system can communicate with the nervous system using neuromodulators and neurohormones secreted by lymphocytes.

Chronic hyperemesis in two siblings with AIDS. Fallon, J Int’l Chiropractic Association Review Summer 2002.

Two male siblings ages 4 and 6 with “HIV infections” and “full-blown AIDS.”

Both boys suffered from severe hyperemesis (vomiting) associated with a hyperactive gag reflex and were on a liquid diet: the six-year-old by mouth and the 4-year-old by gastric tube. The 6-year-old had a viral load of 1,200 and was on a regime of antiviral drugs. His 4-year-old brother, with a viral load of 1,000,000 was on a cocktail of HIV medications (after the monotherapy failed).

The 4-year-old had a history of chronic ear infections and the 6-year-old had severe learning disabilities. Both boys needed a walker or bilateral canes. The older boy had uncontrollable dribbling.

Spinal examination of the 4-year-old revealed subluxations at occiput/atlas, C1, C4, T4, T9 and Tl2. Spinal examination of the 6-year-old revealed subluxations at C1, T1, T8 and AS of the right ileum.

Adjustments of the subluxated segments were begun; each boy was initially seen 2 times a week for three weeks.

Within three weeks of initial care the older boy could walk better, he was able to use only one cane instead of two, he ate solid food for the first time since birth, his chronic drooling stopped as did his gagging and vomiting. However, if he went longer than 30 days without an adjustment his gag reflex returned as well as the uncontrolled vomiting.

The younger boy was able to stop the gastric feeding and take liquid food orally, his vomiting reduced and his chronic ear infections ceased. In a few months he was able to eat solid food. His viral load dropped from 1,000,000 to 5! As long as he was adjusted 1-2 times per month, his vomiting did not return.

Chiropractic treatment and antibody levels. Alcorn, S. Journal of the Australian Chiropractic Association. 1977.

This paper reported increased levels of immunoglobulins in the blood serum of three patients under chiropractic care. A fourth patient did not respond to care.

The author speculates the vertebral subluxation complex (VSC) acts as a stressor, which causes increased secretion of cortical from the adrenal cortex. If cortisol levels exceed optimum levels, immunoglobulin secretion would be inhibited.

Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation: potential role of substance P. Brennan PC, Kokjohn DC, Killinger CL et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 14 No 7 Sept 1991 p 399-408.

An interesting property of phagocytic cells (polymorphonuclear neutrophils or PMNs and monocytes in this study) is put to use in this study, that is, they emit light during phagocytosis (called “respiratory burst”).

Using 67 male and 32 female volunteers, blood was taken 15 minutes before and after subjects had a sham manipulation, a thoracic spine manipulation or a soft tissue manipulation.

More light was emitted from monocytes and PMNs after spinal manipulation than from the sham or soft tissue work. Substance P (SP) is a neurotransmitter released from the dorsal root ganglion and its plasma level was elevated after the manipulation. SP appears to be able to prime phagocytes for enhanced respiratory burst.

From the discussion: “Thus the data provided evidence that spinal manipulation elicits viscerosomatic responses; specifically, our study shows that manipulation affects cells involved in inflammatory and immune responses, at least over the short term.”

Chiropractic Care and Infertility

Successful In Vitro Fertilization in a Poor Responder While Under Network Spinal Analysis Care: A Case Report Senzon SA, J Vertebral Subluxation Research September 14, 2003, pp 1-6.

This case report describes the successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) of a 34 year old female who had one previous aborted In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) attempt prior to Network Spinal Analysis (NSA) care that was attempted due to her partner’s azoospermia.

The patient had been treated medically Mircette (birth control pills), Lupron (a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist), and Gonal-F (a recombinant FSH). The IVF was cancelled due to poor response. The patient commenced regular NSA care and her body chemistry responded positively so that the next IVF was successful and was followed by a successful pregnancy. The patient is still under NSA care, and is now in her second trimester with normal fetal heart sounds.

The resolution of chronic colitis with chiropractic care leading to increased fertility Blum, CR J Vertebral Subluxation Research August 31, 2003, p 1-5.

A 32-year-old female presented at my office for chiropractic care of her chronic colitis and did not disclose her condition of infertility during the course of care at this office. There appears to be some relationship between chiropractic care and relief of some visceral conditions relating to the colon and female reproductive organs. Chiropractic care including Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT), chiropractic manipulative reflex technique (CMRT), and category one block placement and protocol were employed. The patient had her chronic condition of colitis relieved and relatively simultaneously became pregnant after giving up on allopathic fertility treatments that she had undergone for 7 years.

Case Study Reduction of Vertebral Subluxation using Torque Release Technique with Changes in Fertility: Two Case Reports J Vertebral Subluxation Research Anderson-Peacock E., July 19, 2003, pp 1-6.

Two women had been deemed medically infertile and artificial insemination was being considered. Upon presentation, complete chiropractic evaluations were performed which detected spinal subluxations. Torque Release Technique Protocols were utilized for both evaluation and application of care. Adjustments were performed with an instrument, the Integrator, to improve spinal-neural integrity. During the course of chiropractic care both women were able to conceive. Although chiropractic care is not a treatment for infertility, it is postulated that improvement of spinal neural integrity through specific chiropractic adjustments may have contributed to improved homeostasis and physiological adaptation thus allowing the body to express a greater level of health as an outcome.

Insult, interference and infertility: an overview of chiropractic research. Behrendt, M. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research May 2, 2003, p. 1-8.

This paper reviews 14 retrospective articles involving 15 women aged 22-65. Eleven had no history of pregnancy, nine had previous treatment for infertility, four were undergoing infertility treatments when starting chiropractic care and had a “poor responder undergoing multiple cycles of IVF” (in-vitro fertilization).

Chiropractic care’s successful outcomes are discussed and the various adjusting techniques used are reviewed. /

Below is the story of a California woman who was given a 5 percent chance of ever becoming pregnant, even with vitro procedures, and who became pregnant after chiropractic adjustments.

A Spine Tingling Affair .The Monterey County Herald, Match 1998 Section D Page 1.

Did you hear the one about the woman who went to the chiropractor and got pregnant?

Really, all Karen Bulch wanted was a little neck-and-shoulders adjustment.

But a month after wandering into chiropractor Mark Kimes’ Salina office, the 44-year-old Monterey woman was with child, something she had unsuccessfully been trying to accomplish for 4 ½ years.

Kimes told her it might happen. And if it did, he said it would be within the first few months.

As Dr. Kimes was doing the neck/shoulders/complete personal history examination, he noticed a subluxation in Bulch’s lower back. He wasn’t sure, but Kimes thought after correcting the subluxation that the restored nerve flow may return her ability to become fertile. “I’ve been in practice for 12 years and I’ve seen it happen with many women,” he said.

Chiropractic Care and Menstrual Health

The female sex organs all need a healthy nerve supply from the spinal cord to function properly. Is Chiropractic able to help me with PMS?

Yes! Many women who have suffered from a wide variety of pain, PMS, bladder, bowel cramps; sexual dysfunctions, including infertility, have all discovered the natural benefits of chiropractic. The spine protects the nerve system that controls the reproductive system and endocrine system (hormones), which is vital for optimal function. If there is subluxation (nerve interference) affecting the relationship between the spine and nerve system, this may impact on the function of the organs. Chiropractors remove nerve interference which restores the optimal function to the reproductive system.

Thompson, P.R.,Fisher, B.L., Carpenter, P.A. et al. Effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy in a treatment of primary dysmenorrheal: A pilot study. JMPT, 1979, 2,pp.140-145

Liebel, N.A. & Butler, L.M. A chiropractic approach to the treatment of dysmenorrheal. JMPT 1990,13 pp. 101-106

Stude, D.E. The management of symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome. JMPT, 1991, 14, pp.209-216

Premenstrual Syndrome and Chiropractic

A positive report was published in the November / December 1999 issue of the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics concerning the effects of chiropractic on the symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome.

The study was completed on 25 women. Estimates of the prevalence of this condition vary depending on criteria. This study estimated that between 10% and 20% of reproductive age women have severe symptoms associated with this condition. The study included chiropractic adjustments for a ten-day period prior to the beginning of the subjects’cycle.

The women were asked to monitor their symptoms and rate them with a score using “0″ = none to “3″ = severe. The results showed a reduction in symptoms from between 42% and 32% for the group that received chiropractic for only a short time. These findings are encouraging the researchers concluded, “results support the hypothesis that the symptoms associated with PMS can be reduced by chiropractic.

Chiropractic Care and Neck Pain

Cervical mobilization: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity. Sterling M, Jull G, Wright A. Man Ther (Manual Medicine) 2001;6(2):72-81.

In this paper, 30 patients with middle or lower neck (cervical) pain had “spinal manipulative therapy” (SMT) and their pain reduced after care.

Spinal care was found to have a pain fighting effect (“a hypoalgesic effect) as pain thresholds increased. It was also found that the sympathetic nervous system, which affects the functions of the internal organs, was affected: The authors wrote: “The treatment technique also produced a sympathoexcitatory effect with an increase in skin conductance and a decrease in skin temperature.”

Chiropractic treatment of post surgical neck syndrome utilizing mechanical force manually assisted short-lever spinal adjustments. Polkinghorn B and Colloca CJ Manipulative Physiol Ther November/December 2001. Vol 24 No. 9.

This is the case of a 35-year-old female who, after having neck surgery two separate times (a discectomy at C3/4 and a fusion at C5/6) suffered from chronic neck pain for over 5 years.

She had originally undergone the surgeries to resolve neck pain. Her surgeon suggested a third surgery but she decided on chiropractic care. Within 30 days of chiropractic care all her chronic pain and muscle spasm resolved. A follow-up two years later revealed no recurrences of her previous chronic problem.

Chronic spinal pain syndromes: a clinical pilot trial comparing acupuncture, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and spinal manipulation. Giles LG, Muller R. J Manipulative Physiol Ther July/August 1999:22(6), pp.376-81.

Seventy seven patients were divided into three groups. One group received needle acupuncture, one group an NSAID and one group chiropractic care.

They were followed up after 30 days. Spinal care was the only intervention to achieve a statistically significant improvement. Patients receiving chiropractic care demonstrated a 30.7% reduction in Oswestry scores and a 25% reduction in neck disability index scores, a 50% reduction for low back pain, 46% reduction for upper back pain and 33% reduction for neck pain. Acupuncture and NSAIDS provided no significant improvement.

Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine. Hurwitz EL, Aker PD et al. Spine, 1996;21(15):1746-1760.

In this review of research, the authors concluded that for those suffering from chronic neck pain, chiropractic adjustments are more effective than any other approach.

Chiropractic treatment of cervical radiculopathy caused by a herniated cervical disc.

Brouillette DL, Gurske, DT. Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics, Feb 1994; 17(2): 119-123.

This is the case study of a 60-year-old woman with a MRI documented herniated cervical disc.

Symptoms included deep, constant, burning ache in the left arm, and severe neck and left shoulder pain. Under chiropractic care the patient’s pain and numbness disappeared and her grip-strength returned to normal within 5 months.

Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy treated with the Meric technique: a case report. Gemmell, HA. Chiropractic Technique, Feb 1994; 6(1): 14-16.

This is the case of an annular disc protrusion with nerve root compression at level C-5 of a 69-year-old white male.

From the abstract:

Patient exhibited toothache-like pain over the left upper trapezius and deltoid muscles with an absent biceps reflex, decreased sensation to pinprick in the C5 dermatome, and a weak deltoid muscle. The patient was successfully treated over 26 days with eight treatments using Meric adjustments and supportive therapy. He remained pain free, without neurological signs, at the 4-month follow-up.

Soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine: a 15-year follow-up. Squires B, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. J of Bone and Joint Surgery (British Edition), 1996; (70B), pp955-57.

Ten and fifteen years after the original accident, some patients continue to complain of neck pain, back pain, headaches and/or dizziness.

This is the study of 40 patients with a whiplash injury assessed an average of 15.5 years after the injury.

This shows us that whiplash symptoms may remain for years without resolution. The most common complaint was neck pain, followed by back pain, headaches and dizziness. Psychological disturbances were seen in 52% of the patients.

Between 10 and 15 years after their initial injuries, only 18% of the patients demonstrated significant improvement. Twenty-eight percent showed deterioration.

Brain SPECT findings in late whiplash syndrome. Otte A, Mueller-Brand J, Fierz L. Lancet 1995; 345:1512-13.

Why do people with neck pain and whiplash sometimes suffer vision, hearing and personality disturbances? A study using a new technology shows that such patients have decreased blood flow in certain brain areas and that pain irritation from the upper neck appears to affect the blood supply to the brain.

Using technetium-99m hexanethylproplyrnrsminroxime single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), they found that six of seven patients with nontraumatic cervical pain had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion. In 24 patients confirmed by independent observers to be suffering from cognitive disturbances after whiplash injury, all had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion compared with 15 normal control subjects.

Chiropractic Care and Pregnancy

It is a common observation that birthing seems to be more comfortable for women who were under chiropractic care during pregnancy. The following studies mention how common spinal problems are resolved during pregnancy (up to 90%) and best of all how Chiropractic is safe, effective and most of all a drug free approach which is ideally suited for the health and well being of both mother and child.

The role of chiropractic in pregnancy. Vallone S. Int’l Chiropractic Assn. Review Summer 2002. p 47-51.

“By encouraging regular chiropractic and maternal self care (which includes good nutrition, regular stretching and exercise and stress management) we can improve our patient’s probability of a successful natural delivery.”

Complementary and alternative medicine in pregnancy: a survey of North Carolina certified nurse-midwives. Allaire AD, Moos WK, Wells SR. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95(1):19-23.

In this survey of 82 certified nurse-midwives, 93.9% reported that they recommended patients to alternative health care providers. 57.3% said they referred women to chiropractors.

Follow-up of patients with low back pain during pregnancy. Brynhildsen J, Hansson A, Persson A, Hammar M. In: Obstetrics & Gynecology, Feb 1998; 91(2): 182-6.

Women with severe low back pain during pregnancy have an extremely high risk for experiencing a new episode of more severe low back pain during future pregnancies and when not pregnant.

Note: According to revised guidelines from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vaginal delivery should be routine in women who previously underwent cesarean section birth, Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association, Feb.1989, Vol.89 No.2, p.164.

An effective drug-free approach to premature contractions. Phillips C. ICA Review Oct. 1998.

Dr. Carol Phillips has done an amazing job of integrating chiropractic with CranioSacral T therapy to develop a number of techniques to help women in labor and pregnancy. Using simple procedures, she teaches healthcare providers unique methods of helping their pregnant patients and young children.

She writes:

”What is it about chiropractic care and pregnancy? Why do so many women who receive care during pregnancy always ask us, ” How in the world do other women get through pregnancy without adjustments?”

This paper presents a simple procedure that doctors can teach spouses and birth assistants in order to prevent and correct “one of the most serious complaints associated with imbalance – premature contractions.”

Back Labor: a possible solution for a painful situation. Phillips C. ICA Review July/August 1997.

From 50-75% of pregnant women experience the acute, severe, low back pain that is categorized as back labor. Dr. Phillips writes: “many first time mothers mistakenly think back labor is what childbirth is supposed to feel like. Let me assure you IT IS NOT.” Dr. Phillips offers a biomechanical approach to back labor. Dr. Phillips states, “Back labor is not a very common finding in patients who have received chiropractic and craniosacral therapy throughout pregnancy.”

Dr. Phillips offers approaches that will help the baby turn so as to prevent back labor and methods that a chiropractor, labor companion or any birth attendant may use to help a woman in labor relax the pelvis, reduce pelvic tension and permit a back labor presentation to turn the baby to a more natural position for delivery.

Hypolumbarlordosis: a predisposing factor for preeclampsia. Kanayama N. Maradny EE, Kajiwara Y. et al. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 1997;75: 115-121.

About 1 in 200 pregnant women suffer from preeclampsia with hypertension and albuminaria (protein in urine) and which can lead to seizures, coma and death. No one knows what causes it.

The authors studied pregnant women to see if there was a relationship between their spinal shape, particularly the lumbar (lower back) spinal shape and preeclampsia. It was revealed that women with decreased lumbar spine curves had more preeclampsia. Interestingly, they also found that patients with reduced lumbar curves had decreased blood flow to the iliac artery than normal pregnant women.

Case history: premature labor. Cohen Eddy, D.C., F.I.C.A. Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 1 No. 4 May 1995.

A chiropractor’s wife experienced premature labor at 32 weeks of gestation. She was also diagnosed with severe endometriosis resulting in inflammation of the ovaries and was informed that she would never be able to become pregnant and recommendation for treatment was laparoscopic surgery.

Patient refused treatment. She went to a hospital where the M.D.s wished to inject oxytocin to stop her contractions. The author writes:

“While at the hospital, the patient’s husband adjusted her. The intensity of the contractions decreased somewhat. However the contractions maintained the same frequency of every five minutes.” She was adjusted C-2, using the toggle recoil technique. Contractions reduced markedly and then discontinued completely “Patient then continued with weekly adjustments until the occurrence of labor and delivery at 40 weeks gestation, with no complications. The patient’s newborn infant was checked and adjusted 20 hours after the birth.”

Some preterm labor may have a neurologic condition that responds to correcting/reducing vertebral subluxation complex. Chiropractic and prenatal reference manual. Peet, JB, The Baby Adjusters, Inc. 1992. Shelburne, VT.

The effects of chiropractic treatment on pregnancy and labor: a comprehensive study. Fallon J. Proceedings of the world chiropractic congress. 1991; 24-31.

The hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy can change the shape of the spinal curves and overall posture which can affect organ systems.

In this study Dr. Fallon describes her work with 65 women who received chiropractic care from at least the tenth week of pregnancy through labor and delivery. These women experienced mean labor times significantly reduced compared to controls.

Women who were primagravidae (first pregnancy) who received chiropractic care averaged 24% shorter labor times than average for primagravidae women.

Women who were multiparous (had had at least one child prior) averaged 39% shorter labor times versus controls.

Adjustive procedures for the pregnant chiropractic patient. Esch S., Zachman Z. Chiropractic Technique. May 1991; 3(2): 66-71.

This is a discussion of the technique and modifications needed to facilitate spinal adjustments for the pregnant patient. The authors used pillows under the abdomen and flexed the knees while prone to reduce stress on the low back.

Back pain during pregnancy and labor. Diakow, PRP, Gadsby, TA, Gadsby JB et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther Vol. 14, No. 2 Feb. 1991.

From the abstract:

An interview of 170 consecutive female patients: of the 170 pregnancies with reported back pain, 72% also reported back labor…The treated group experienced less pain during labor.

Eighty-four per-cent of patients receiving spinal manipulative therapy reported relief of back pain during pregnancy. There was significantly less likelihood of back labor when spinal manipulative therapy was administered during pregnancy.

The effect of chiropractic treatment on pregnancy and labor: a comprehensive study. Fallon J. New York, NY: Yeshiva University. From 1991, World Chiropractic Congress Abstracts.

One half of all pregnant women complain to their obstetricians about backache (LeBan et al. 1983); it can be demonstrated that chiropractic care significantly reduces the mean labor time.

Chiropractic Care and Sciatica

Non-operative treatments for sciatica: a pilot study for a randomized clinical trial. Bronfort G, Evans RL, Anderson AV et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics October 2000, Vol. 23 No. 8.

This is a prospective, observer-blinded, pilot randomized clinical trial of 20 patients aged 20-65 with low back-related leg pain. Patients were divided into three groups. One group was given medical care, one group chiropractic care and one group steroid injections. All groups showed substantial improvement at the end of the 12 week study.

Lack of effectiveness of bed rest for sciatica. Patrick CAJ, Vroomen MD, Marc CTFM, et al. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;340:418-423.

Many medical doctors prescribe bed rest for sciatica, yet according to the authors: “For low back pain, bed rest has traditionally been considered effective, although there is little objective data to support this view. In recent years evidence of the ineffectiveness of bed rest for low back pain has accumulated, but bed rest continues to still be widely used for treatment of sciatica.”

From the conclusion: “Among patients with symptoms and signs of a lumbosacral radicular syndrome, bed rest is not a more effective therapy than watchful waiting.”

From Mobilization of the Spine (1984) by Grieve GP Churchill Livingston, London/New York, 4th edition, 22-23.

“All those experienced in manipulation can report numerous examples of migrainous headaches, disequilibrium (vertigo), subjective visual disturbances, feelings of retro-orbital pressure, dysphagia, dysphonia, heaviness of a limb, extra segmental paraesthesia, restriction of respiratory excursion, abdominal nausea and the cold sciatic leg being relieved by manual or mechanical treatment of the vertebral column.”

Low force chiropractic care of two patients with sciatic neuropathy and lumbar disc herniation. Richards GL et al. Am J Chiro Med Mar 1990;3(1):25-32.

From the abstract:

Two patients with sciatic neuropathy and confirmed disc herniation were treated with low force treatment regimen consisting of Activator instrument adjusting, pelvic blocking, high voltage galvanic current and exercises. Follow-up CAT scans in the first case (revealed) complete absence of disc herniation. The second case follow up scan revealed the continued presence of a silent disc bulge at the L3-4 level and partial decrease in a herniation at the L4-5 level. The bulge appeared to have shifted away from the nerve root. Both patients’ pain levels decreased from severe to minimal. The patients regained the ability to stand, sit and walk for longer periods without discomfort; lifting tasks also became easier. The patients were able to return to full work capacity at three and nine months respectively.

Chiropractic Care and Stress

How Big of a Role Does Stress Play in Your Overall Level of Health? Chiropractic understands that stress, whether it be physical, chemical or emotional in nature. Stress affects the body’s ability to properly function and leads to poor health from the affects of subluxation. More and more research keeps piling up to support this concept, but the short and long-term effects of stress and subluxation are hardly ever addressed by the modern medical system. The medical community is not about to accept the theory that there is one cause for all disease (i.e. stress and subluxation). This is contrary to every major medical premise. Yet this is exactly what happened in 1964 when Hans Selye, M.D. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine!

In the 1950’s, Dr. Selye studied the effect of stress on the human body and presented his work to the world in the concept of the “General Adaptation Syndrome,” for which he won the 1964 Nobel Prize. This was a revolutionary concept of mental and physical illness and it was, at the time, acclaimed as the most important and far-reaching idea in the history of medicine…that STRESS is the cause of all disease.

In his book, “The Stress of Life,” Selye described how, as a medical student, he first noticed that the early signs of many illnesses were identical—loss of energy and appetite, generalized aches and pains, and so on. He wondered why these vague symptoms were taken for granted by his instructors. Years of research gradually led him to realize that these commonly related symptoms were actually part of a pattern, the arousing of the body’s resistance to a stress-causing agent. It did not matter whether the stressor came from a mechanical, chemical, nutritional, biological, or even emotional source. The body always reacted in an identical manner.

According to Selye, the body produces an alarm reaction to any form of stress that threatens its well-being. Unless the stress is unusually strong, we are not even aware of the body’s response. This initial alarm reaction is followed by a period of adaptation to the stress, or compensation, if the stress continues unabated. This process will continue until the body’s vital energy is exhausted and symptoms become apparent. It is at this point that the patient usually seeks help but usually from an over-the-counter remedy at the pharmacy, not in a doctor’s office. If the symptoms continue and the body’s ability to maintain normal function becomes more exhausted, professional help must be sought. For most problems, the process is a slow and a gradual slide into a disease that can be measured and eventually named. The diseased person then becomes, we are told, the exclusive property of the medical and insurance communities.

I do not have a problem with disease and degeneration coming under the medical umbrella. That is what medical professionals are trained to deal with. I do have difficulty with the concept of their ability to recognize disease before a pathological process can be identified. The truth is, the patient must be diseased (quantified and qualified) before medicine can hope to be effective. Otherwise, it is just guesswork. Chiropractic can be applied to anyone to improve the overall health of the individual, regardless if symptoms are present or not. In this respect, chiropractic is a universal health care option, whereas medicine is limited to treating disease rather than restoring health. There is a HUGE difference.

Every diseased patient has already gone through the periods of stress, alarm, reaction, adaptation or compensation, and exhaustion BEFORE the disease was named and specific therapy begun. During this period of time, whether a specific disease has been identified or not – a chiropractor using a careful case history and examination can identify the stress, assist in its removal, and correct the most damaging effect of stress on the bodies normal function – the subluxation. In this way, disease can be prevented and an enormous service rendered to humanity, through a service no medicine is able to provide – the adjustment.

Dr. Selye’s book says, “Apparently, disease is not just suffering, but a fight to maintain the homeostatic balance of our tissues, despite damage. Could all of this vagueness be translated into the precise terms of modern medical science? Could it point a way to explore whether or not there is some non-specific defence system built into our body, a mechanism to fight any kind of disease?”

Chiropractic deals with this inborn defence system, and complements the body’s inherent ability to heal itself when there is no interference to the function of the nervous system.

Duke University Releases Headache Evidence ReportSubstantial Evidence Shows Efficacy of Chiropractic for Tension and Cervicogenic HeadachesIn 1996, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) was scheduled to produce a set of clinical practice guidelines on available treatment alternatives for headaches. Previously the agency utilized the same historic clinical guidelines for, Acute Low Back Problems in Adults, released late in December 1994. This headache project was based on the systematic evaluation of the literature by a multidisciplinary panel of experts. Due to largely political circumstances, however, their efforts never came to fruition. The work was never released as guidelines, but was instead transformed with modifications and budget cuts into a set of evidence reports on only migraine headaches by the staff at the Center for Clinical Health Policy Research at Duke University.

The Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER) is proud to announce that with its efforts and funding from the National Chiropractic Mutual Insurance Company (NCMIC), evidence reports have now been updated on both cervicogenic and tension-type headaches. This new report, Evidence Report: Behavioral and Physical Treatments for Tension-type and Cervicogenic Headache, essentially updates and releases much of the information on treatment alternatives for tension and cervicogenic headaches that had been suppressed earlier.

Among the many treatment alternatives supported by evidence, chiropractic is buoyed by substantial evidence in this report as to its efficacy in the management of both tension-type and cervicogenic headaches:

  • Compared to amitriptyline use, chiropractic is shown to produce slightly lesser effects during the treatment period, but markedly superior results afterward in the treatment of a tension-type headache.
  • Compared to various soft tissue procedures, a course of chiropractic treatments is shown to produce sustained improvement in headache frequency and severity in the treatment of cervicogenic headache.
  • Compared to various soft tissue procedures, there was evidence to indicate that a course of chiropractic treatments produced further improvement in headache frequency and severity in the treatment of an episodic tension-type headache

This particular study’s findings have important implications in choosing alternatives in procedures for managing different types of headaches. This new undertaking mandated the staff at the Duke Center to screen citations from the literature, abstract the data into evidence tables, analyze the quality and magnitude of results from these studies, and draft an evidence report with peer review from a panel of 25 reviewers, including researchers and clinicians in chiropractic.

Starting with over 2,500 citations from such online sources as MEDLINE, MANTIS, CRAC, CINAHL, PsychoINFO, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and additional articles obtained by referral, the panel obtained bibliographies of both physical and behavioral options for treating headache that were prospective, controlled trials aimed at either relief from or prevention of attacks of tension-type or cervicogenic headache.

Among the physical interventions reviewed in this report:

  • acupuncture
  • cervical spinal manipulation
  • low-force techniques such as cranial sacral therapy
  • massage (including trigger point releases)
  • mobilization
  • stretching
  • heat therapy
  • ultrasound
  • transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
  • exercise (including postural exercises)

Among the behavioural interventions reviewed are:

  • relaxation
  • biofeedback
  • cognitive-behavioural (stress management) therapy
  • hypnosis

This report clearly positions Chiropractic as the most viable treatment and notes that Chiropractic lacks the detrimental and sometimes fatal side effects of conventional treatment options for managing tension and cervicogenic headache patients.. Compared to other physical treatment methods (including physiotherapy, acupuncture, and electrical stimulation), the evidence overwhelmingly supports Chiropractic as having the most statistically significant benefits.

Chiropractic Care and Subluxation

WHAT IS A SUBLUXATION? Often described in practice as a partial dislocation, a subluxation is when the vertebrae move slightly out of alignment causing pressure or irritation to the nerves. The spine loses normal motion and/or position and can have an affect on the nerves involved and vertebrae around the subluxated area. As the vertebrae are not functioning properly this can cause wear and tear on the discs and associated ligaments, muscles and other spinal tissue. This nerve interference results in the body operating at a reduced rate. Pain, inflammation and tenderness often follow. Once the nervous system has been impaired via a subluxation, the overall health and wellbeing of the person is at reduced.

Chiropractors locate Subluxations which cause interference to the nervous system. They then correct the interference through gentle movements of the spine. This is usually done with the hands, which relieves the pressure to the nerves therefore assisting in correction and improving the health of the nerves.

What Causes Subluxations?
Subluxations are caused through varying ways. They can be responses to physical, emotional, chemical or genetic factors.

Physical
Birth process, slips, falls, car accident, poor sleeping habits, repetitive motions, sports injuries, bad postural habits etc.

Emotional
Stressful conditions such as family problems, divorce, death in family, work stresses, life problems and not being able to manage stressful situations.

Chemical
External pollutants in the environment, smoking, drugs, car fumes, alcohol, poor diet.

Genetics
Many health problems can run in families.

Muscle weakness or imbalance from stress, obesity or lack of exercise are all contributing factors to Subluxations

What are the Symptoms Associated With Subluxations?
Most patients actually wait until they have a symptom such as pain until they seek chiropractic help. They can have a range of symptoms including:

  • Inflammation & swelling
  • Neck pain
  • Back pain
  • Low energy
  • Tenderness
  • Reduction or loss of mobility
  • Muscle spasms
  • Tingling sensations
  • Loss of sensation
  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Stiffness
  • Loss of control over muscles or organs.
  • Poor overall state of health
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Colic
  • Asthma
  • Depression
  • Poor weight control
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Arm and leg pain
  • And the list goes on….

It must also be noted, that people who are not experiencing any symptoms are not necessarily ‘subluxation free’. It is common for pain to be the last symptom to occur and the first symptom to disappear. Just like tooth decay, we may not be aware that we have it until it has been decaying for months or possibly years before we feel a ‘toothache’.

Functional disorders (fixations) of the spine in children. Lewit K. Manuelle Therapie, J.A. Barth, Leipzig, 1973. Chap.2.7. Pp.50-54.

Functional disorders are considered to be the first manifestations of spinal or vertebrogenic disease, with first symptoms appearing at a young age. In a total of 57 children’s migraine cases, 48 had excellent results after manipulative therapy. Functional disorders in children may manifest themselves as sleep disorders, loss of appetite, psychic problems or dysmenorrhea and may not exist as spinal pain.

Studies of healthy children revealed pelvic subluxations in 40% of all school children, cervical fixation in 15.8%. After manipulative treatments, the problems rarely recurred.

The concept of research of vertebrogenic disease in CSSR. Stary O. Clinic of Neurology, Charles Univ. Prague, Acta Universitatis Carolinae (Med) Suppl. 1965.

More than half the population suffers from vertebrogenic diseases for certain periods of their life. Disorders of the vertebral column may start in childhood many years before clinical manifestation.

Blocked atlantal nerve syndrome in infants and small children. Gutman G. ICA Review, 1990; July:37-42. Originally published in German Manuelle Medizin (1987) 25:5-10.

From the abstract:

Three case reports are reviewed to illustrate a syndrome that has so far received far too little attention and which is caused and perpetuated in babies and infants by blocked nerve impulses at the atlas. Included in the clinical picture are lowered resistance to infections, especially to ear-, nose- and throat infections, two cases of insomnia, two cases of cranial bone asymmetry, and one case each of torticollis, retarded locomotor development, retarded linguistic development, conjunctivitis, tonsillitis, rhinitis, earache, extreme neck sensitivity, incipient scoliosis, delayed hip development, and seizures.

The importance of chiropractic care for children. Abram, N. The Chiropractic Report. July 1992 Vol. 6 No. 5.

Lumbar dysfunctions in children. Bourdillon JE, Day EA, Bookhout MR: Spinal Manipulation, 5th edition. Oxford, England, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, 1992.

In school children’s orthopaedic clinics one of the authors saw many primary school children with symptoms arising from lumbar dysfunctions. In most of these, a parent would remember an injury when specifically asked, but the history had to be searched for before it was mentioned. Unless they are treated by the time these children have reached adulthood, the compensatory asymmetries will almost certainly have become fixed and they require treatment.

Are radiographic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescent’s risk factors for low back pain in adults. A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine. 1995;20:2,298-302.

This is a study of 640 14-year-old children who were followed from 1965 through 1990 to determine risk factors for the development of low back pain in adulthood. Low back pain during the growth period and family history were both associated with an increased risk. The lifetime reverence for back pain was 84% for this cohort. The proportion of subjects having radiographic abnormalities was 36% and this was associated with an increased incidence of back pain in adulthood. Interestingly, the investigators did find an increased incidence of mental problems such as fear or depression in the group of patients with radiographic changes in the T11-L2 area.

“The principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done – men who are creative, inventive and discoverers.” — Jean Piaget

Vertebral Subluxation Correlated with Somatic,Visceral and Immune Complaints: An Analysis of 650 Children Under Chiropractic Care Ogi Ressel BSc, DC, DACBR(C), FICPA Bio and Robert Rudy BSc, DC, FICPA Bio [October 18, 2004 pp 1-23]

Background: We evaluated children and their neuromuscular, biomechanical, neuro-homeostatic development and patterning in order to gain some insight into the perplexing problem of health attainment. We describe the nuances and effects of a new subluxation pattern seen in children – the Pelvic Distortion Subluxation Complex (PDSC). We feel that the PDSC is responsible, partially or fully, for a number of adaptive neurological patterns and kinesiopathological reflexes that can propagate a myriad of conditions – these seem to arise in childhood and plague individuals into adulthood. The authors maintain that PDSC is an entity amenable to correction – thereby restoring homeostasis.

Objective: It is the author’s contention that many, if not the preponderance of conditions seen in adults, have their origins in the childhood years. The objective of this paper is to describe a new subluxation pattern seen in children – the Pelvic Distortion Subluxation Complex which we found to be a common denoninator in many children’s health issues.

Methods: We examined children of varying ages, varying complaints, and varying levels of health expression. All children in the study were chosen randomly and were patients of our Centre. All examinations were performed by 6 staff doctors with pediatric certification from the International Chiropractic Pediatric Association. The initial sample consisted of 677 children. 27 were excluded for the following reasons; No pelvic information was available, child was under the age of two, child was over the age of 18. Our final sample consisted of 327 boys and 323 girls. Analysis of examination findings, radiology, Surface Electromyography and Infrared Thermography was statistically evaluated. We took 5 parameters of complaints disclosed by children (or mentioned by their parents) and arranged them according to the class of complaint; a. Somatic b. Visceral/Autonomic c. Behavioural d. Immune e. Other. All data was arranged according to three age groups; a. 2-4, b. 5-12, c. 13-18, and was also categorized by sex and total scores.

Results: The preponderance of PDSC is to present with a left pelvic fixation and a corresponding right hypermobility. We have found that 96% of all children seem to possess, and be subjected to the effects of the Pelvic Distortion Subluxation Complex. The PDSC was a common denominator in complaints plaguing our sample of children. These are summarized into a percentage of the total sample and the most common complaints of children in our study are mainly of a somatic nature with some visceral and immune components.

Conclusion: The process of neurological learning or programming of the central nervous system with respect to locomotion, posture, proprioception, and body kinetics begins within a few short months after birth. Our study revealed a pattern of pelvic dysfunction correlated with numerous somatic, visceral and immune complaints. These dysfunctions should be discovered as early as possible in a child’s development to effect a correction and the relationship between these dysfunctions and ill health should be further studied.

Chiropractic and Wellness

For over 100 years Doctors of Chiropractic have said that regular chiropractic care boosts the bodies ability to heal and repair itself, while our detracters have continued to say that this tenent of chiropractic can not be proven. The advancement of modern technoligies has now caught up with Chiropractic Philosophy with the recent advent of study in the area of genetics. Today we are able to measure the various enzymes that are related to the bodies natural process of regeneration. One particular enzyme, thiol, has been identified as a key indication of the bodies rate of regeneration. If your body is regenerating slower you will have lower serum thiol and you are more likely to suffer from chronic disease and degeneration, whereas if your body is regenerating faster you will have higher serum thiol and you are more like to experience vitality and you bodies true potential for health. The following study looks at various groups of people including those with active diseases, those receiving short term chiropractic care, and those receiving long term wellness chiropractic care and shows the corresponding levels of serum thiol for the various groups. This study difinitively shows the benefits of chiropractic wellness care in terms of your bodies regenerative capacity.

Surrogate Indication of DNA Repair in Serum After Long Term Chiropractic Intervention – A Retrospective Study

ABSTRACT:

Objective: To assess the effects of short-term and long-term chiropractic care on serum thiol levels in asymptomatic subjects.

Summary of background data: Serum thiols are a measure of human health status. It is a surrogate estimate of DNA repair enzyme activity, most notably poly ADP – ribose polymerase or PARP.

While it is suggested that chiropractic care improves general health, the effect of chiropractic care on serum thiol levels has not been investigated.

Methods: A case controlled retrospective analysis. Serum thiol levels in patients with active disease (N=46) were compared with serum thiol levels in primary wellness subjects with 8-52 weeks of chiropractic care (N=21) and those who had been under chiropractic care for 52-312 weeks (N=25).

Patients were age matched to be 40 years of age or older.

Results: There were statistically significant differences in the serum thiol levels of the three groups. Mean serum thiol levels were lowest in patients with active disease as well as patients with initial musculoskeletal complaints.

Asymptomatic subjects under chiropractic care demonstrated higher mean serum thiol levels than patients with active disease. Mean serum thiol levels were highest in the group with 52-312 weeks of chiropractic care.

Conclusion: Asymptomatic or primary wellness subjects under chiropractic care demonstrated higher mean serum thiol levels than patients with active disease and produced some values that were higher than normal wellness values.

Chiropractic Care and Whiplash

Long term damage to the spine and head is especially common in auto accidents. Doctors of chiropractic have for years recognized the need for neuro-structural integrity in these areas and that most victims of automobile injuries do not fully recover under medical care; they may continue to have problems for years after the accident. This is especially the case of those who have whiplash and concussion injuries. This of course underscores the need for chiropractic care for accident victims. New medical terms acknowledging the chronicity and incomplete healing of accident victims have recently arisen. The terms used are: Postconcussion Syndrome (PCS), Whiplash Syndrome (WS), Post Whiplash Syndrome (PWS), Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (MTBI), and mild head injury (MHI).

The chiropractic profession owes a debt to Arthur Croft, DC of San Diego, California who taught of, and researched the need for the caring of patients who had the above conditions years before these conditions were acknowledged in the medical literature.

The detection and management of pediatric whiplash injuries. Ben Eliyahhu, DJ Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic & Pediatrics, Oct. 1993, Palm Springs, CA, November 1993, Palm Beach, Florida.

This paper presents case studies on the detection and management of pediatric whiplash injuries.

Case study one.

A six-year-old female was involved in a rear end collision while sitting in the front seat. She and her mother were taken to the hospital where the mother was examined, x-rayed, collared and released. The child was briefly examined, the mother was told that the child was okay and was discharged. The child complained to the mother of headaches and neck stiffness, was taken to the pediatrician who said the child was fine. The complaints persisted and the mother brought the child to the chiropractor. Infrared thermography scans disclosed abnormalities of the head, neck and upper extremities. Radiographs revealed ligamentous instability, cervical subluxations and myospasm. The mother said that the child began to experience “black-outs” and a neurologist diagnosed Petit Mal seizures. The child improved under medical and chiropractic care and often said that the adjustment gave her the greatest relief and she would often ask her mother to bring her to the chiropractor.

Case study two

An eight year-old boy was involved in an auto accident and complained that his leg and head hurt. Doctors in the emergency room said he was fine. Infrared thermography scans of the child revealed abnormalities due to vertebral subluxations and spinal biomechanical insult. Post adjustment scans showed a return to normal and correlated to the child’s symptomatic improvement.

A symptomatic classification of whiplash injury and the implications for treatment. Khan S, Cook J, Gargan M. Bannister G The Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine 21[1] 1999.

The goal of this paper was “to determine which patients with chronic whiplash will benefit from chiropractic treatment.” 93 patients were interviewed in “structured telephone interviews.”

From the conclusion: “Whiplash injuries are common. Chiropractic is the only proven effective treatment in chronic cases.”

A multiple parameter assessment of whiplash injury patients undergoing subluxation based chiropractic care: a retrospective study. McCoy HG and McCoy M. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research Vol 1, No 3, 1997 Pp. 51-61.

From the Abstract:

A retrospective study was conducted of 57 subjects who had experienced an acceleration/deceleration (whiplash) injury.. With subluxation-based chiropractic care, the subject population showed significant increases in cervical flexion and extension, muscle strength, and a decrease in the neck pain disability index. Atlas/axis and Jackson’s angles varied inversely from presentation to MCI (maximum chiropractic improvement). Longer durations of care were correlated with the lower ratios (fewer adjustments/week), while shorter durations of care to reach MCI were correlated to higher ratios (average adjustments/week).

Post whiplash syndrome. Bogduk, N. Australian Family Physician Vol. 23, No. 12 December 1994 Pp. 2303-2307.

This article, from one of the world’s leading anatomists and cervical spine researchers is an excellent paper for the study of whiplash. His observation of the limitations of the medical approach to whiplash: “The treatment of whiplash is based on fashion and faith” (p.2306) underlies the importance of using chiropractic first before resorting to drugs and surgery. In discussing the “core of patients who do not recover”, Professor Bogduk describes medicine’s failure to help these people as the fault of a “system that denies the problem discourages research and puts the blame for the problem on the patients.” (P. 2307).

From the introduction:

Whiplash is a poorly understood problem that attracts accusations of malingering and compensation neurosis. Recent research has revealed a variety of occult lesions that can be responsible for the chronic pain and suffering after whiplash; however, appropriate diagnostic techniques are still either lacking or not widely used. While there are reasonable options for acute management there is no proven therapy for the chronic situation.

Course of attention and memory after common whiplash: a two-year prospective study with age, education and gender pair-matched patients. Di Stefano G and Radanov BP Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 91: 346-352).

Comment: Some studies have documented attention deficits in symptomatic whiplash patients as well as memory loss while other studies have not. This paper reviews the value of the studies done by others in this field and found them to have designs that were “insufficient.” The chiropractic interest in this subject is more than that of the neuromusculoskeletal condition of whiplash, but of the brain function that is affected by presumed subluxations of the cervical spine. This work should be read in concert with Gorman’s and Zhang’s papers in the Improved Brain Function section of this report.

From the abstract:

Attentional functional and memory of common whiplash patients were evaluated during the first two years after experiencing injury….All (117) patients had a similar socioeconomic background, all being injured in automobile accidents and fully covered by insurance plans. Two years following initial trauma, 21 patients remained symptomatic.

When compared with matched controls, the 21 symptomatic patients had no memory impairment but did have attention functional (difficult of follow-up of tasks with divided attention).

Late outcome of mild head injury: results from a controlled postal survey. Bohnen N, Vanzutphen W, Twijnstra A et al. Brain Injury 8(8): 701-708, 1994.

In this study, a postal questionnaire was sent to a population of (mild head injury) MHI patients 1 to 5 years post accident and a control group to measure subjective and psychological complaints, distresses and discomforts often mentioned by MHI patients. Interestingly, the distresses and symptoms of the MHI group were indistinguishable from the non-MHI, however the MHI group’s symptoms were significantly more severe.

The conclusion from the abstract was interesting: “The results support the hypothesis that MHI may not ever be completely reversible.”

Post-traumatic headache. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinica. Neuroscience 6(3): 229-236, 1994.

From the abstract:

The authors review post-traumatic headache (PTH). The most common symptom following head injury, PTH is paradoxically most severe after mild head injury. Although most cases resolve within 6-12 months, many patients have protracted or even permanent headache. Because PTH generally has no objective findings, it is often controversial whether the symptom is “real,” “psychogenic,” or “fabricated.” Despite persisting beliefs by physicians, attorneys, and insurers that PTH resolves upon legal settlement, recent studies have shown that “permanent” PTH is usually present several years after a legal settlement. Often PTH affects family life, recreation, and employment. Patients require education and support as well as appropriate evaluation and treatment.

Visceral diseases as a sequela of brain damages. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk (1): 12-15, 1994.

From the abstract:

In the period following mild closed brain injury, diseases of the viscera and the body’s systems develop as a result of diffuse lesions in the brain regions. Experimental studies have shown that this is associated with impaired self-regulatory mechanisms responsible for energy metabolic processes in the brain.

The relationship between whiplash injury and subsequent lower back complications. Neel SS et al. Chiropractic Oct 1988;1(3):86-88.

It has been observed that people who suffer from whiplash injuries develop low back pain. This study interviewed 52 patients who had been involved in a whiplash type injury and found that 85% of them reported lower back pain after the whiplash.

The patients in this study had no previous motor vehicle accidents, were wearing lap and harness seat belts and had no previous low back pain.

Relationship between early somatic, radiological, cognitive and psychosocial findings and outcome during a one-year follow-up in 117 patients suffering from common whiplash. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33:442-8.

Initial examinations of 117 whiplash patients were performed a few days after the accident, and 3, 6 and 12 months afterwards. After one year, 28 patients (24% of total) were symptomatic. Poor improvements were associated with severity of injury, previous history of head trauma and headache, sleep disturbance immediately after accident, nervousness and reduced speed of information processing.

Considerations in the rehabilitation of cervical myofascial injury, Canadian Family Physician, Vol. 32, Sept. 1986.

About 10-15% of motor vehicle cervical injuries fail to achieve a functional recovery 2-3 years after the accident.

Whiplash injuries: their long-term prognosis and its relationship to compensation Hodgson, S.P., Neuro-Orthopedics 7, 1989.

62% of the people injured in a whiplash soft-tissue trauma will have continued complaints between 10 and 15 years after the date of the accident..

PET and SPECT in whiplash syndrome: a new approach to a forgotten brain? Otte A, Ettlin TM, Nitzsche EU, Wachter K, Hoegerle S, Simon GH, Fierz L, Moser E, Mueller-Brand J. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997; 63:368-372.

From the abstract:

Whiplash associated disorders are a medicolegally controversial condition becoming increasingly worrisome to the western world. This study was designed to evaluate perfusion and glucose metabolism in [the] whiplash brain.

The study involved six patients suffering from whiplash syndrome and 12 normal controls. They gave everyone chemicals that reveal brain function when viewed by specialized equipment (PET and SPECT) that is similar to a CAT scan for the brain. In the patient group, there was “significant hypometabolism” or decreased brain function and hypoperfusion or decreased blood in the parieto-occipital regions on the right and left side compared to the control group.

But most revealing was the authors’ statement as to the possible cause of the brain changes after they ruled out direct injury to the brain and brain structures: “It is hypothesized that parieto-occipital hypometabolism may be caused by activation of nociceptive afferent nerves from the upper cervical spine.”

Chronic cervical zygopophysial joint pain after whiplash: a placebo-controlled prevalence study. Lord, WM, Barnsley L. Wallis BJ, Bogduk N. Spine. 1996;21:1737-45.

This double-blind placebo-controlled trial implicates the facet joints as the most common pain source from whiplash type injury. It builds on other research pointing to the same source of whiplash pain.